What are some ways that I can narrow down my answers? For example: If I have a vocabulary question and I don't know what the word means exactly...how can I make my best guess?
With vocabulary questions, you can try to deduce the answer by looking at the options given and comparing them. Are there two words that mean the opposite? It's often likely that one of these two will be the correct answer. It's also important to be methodical, and to weigh each word that you recognize and rule them out if possible. I would also recommended studying root words from Greek and Latin. These will be very helpful in determining a word's approximate meaning!
Why is B.F. Skinner important? What did he do to contribute to psychological theory?
B.F. Skinner was one of the original Behaviorists. He was only interested in overt, measurable human behavior, and believed that thought processes were impossible to measure, and therefore irrelevant. He was a proponent of using conditioning to modify behavior, and his theories are still used today by behaviorists. He performed many experiments to demonstrate conditioning, and the Skinner Box is his namesake.
How can I figure out what the author's intention was when writing something? How am I supposed to know what they think just from what they wrote? I'm not a mind-reader!
Take a closer look at how the author describes certain people and things. Look at this passage about this person for example: What words did she use to describe them? When you read it aloud, what kind of tone of voice sounds right to you? Does she talk more about their good points, or their bad points? These will give you clues about the author's attitude. Do you feel like she's trying to make you think a certain way when you read this?