How can I effectively create a solid outline for an essay?
Most essays contain five paragraphs: introduction, three body paragraphs, and conclusion. Assuming you have an essay topic selected, the next step is to choose three main points you want to make about your chosen topic. These will later develop into the three body paragraphs. These three points should connect but not overlap. In other words, they should all fit under the umbrella of your essay topic but should still be distinct from each other. For example the three main points of an essay about elephants should be their trunks, their ears, and their tails. Conversely, the three main points in an essay about elephants should NOT be their trunks, their ears, and their absence of a traditional nose. Notice how points one and three overlap in this case? This is what you want to avoid. Once the three main points are selected, you bookend them with an introduction and conclusion, and you're ready to finish writing!
What is viscosity, and how does it relate to the intermolecular forces present in a substance?
Simply put, viscosity is a fluid's resistance to flow. For example, maple syrup is more viscous than water. Though syrup and water are both liquids, the syrup is thicker and flows much more slowly than does the water. Viscosity is directly related to the strength of a fluid's intermolecular forces (IMF's). The stronger the fluid's IMF's, the more viscous it is, and the more it will resist flow. This makes sense because the more a fluid is "held together" by strong IMF's, the less the molecules will be able to move over and around each other in order to flow. For example, dispersion forces are much weaker than hydrogen bonding, so a fluid containing only dispersion forces will be less viscous than a fluid containing hydrogen bonding.
What are the differences in terminology used to describe chromosomes during their movement through the cell cycle and mitosis in particular?
During G1 of interphase we use "chromosomes" to refer to each of the homologues present in the nucleus of the cell. After replication (or S phase), replicated homologues are still referred to as chromosomes but are now comprised of two "sister chromatids." The term sister chromatids refers to the identical parts of a replicated chromosome, which are held together at the centromere . This same terminology carries through G2 of interphase and into prophase and anaphase of mitosis. During metaphase, the replicated chromosomes, each comprised of two sister chromatids, are lined up at the metaphase plate, ready for the sister chromatids to be separated into opposite poles of the cell. As soon as the sister chromatids are pulled apart, they are both referred to as independent chromosomes as mitosis finishes and the cell divides.