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# Tutor profile: Kristen A.

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Kristen A.
Science Teacher
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## Questions

### Subject:Chemistry

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Question:

How do you write the formula for copper (II) phosphate?

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Kristen A.

Because copper is a transition element, it's charge can change. In the name the (II) tells you the charge of copper so copper is +2. Then phosphate is PO4 with a -3 charge. How to figure out the subscripts you have to get the charge number to equal each other while still being opposite charge. So the least common multiple (LCM) between 2 and 3 is 6. Therefore if you have three coppers that will give you a +6 charge (each copper is +2 charge, so +2+2+2= 6) and if you have two phosphates that will give you a -6 charge (each phosphate is -3, so -3-3= -6). This gives you an overall charge of copper and phosphate together of zero, which is important when writing formulas, you always want to make sure that the charges, when added, equal zero. So the formula for copper (II) phosphate is Cu3(PO4)2. Make sure to make the numbers subscripts when writing them.

### Subject:Biology

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Question:

What is the process of gel electrophoresis?

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Kristen A.

Gel electrophoresis is a way to identify someone's DNA from another person. It starts out by cutting up a DNA sequence using restriction enzymes (restriction enzymes cut up DNA based on a specific sequence found in the DNA). Then the pieces of DNA are placed into a section of the container that has holes specifically to hold the DNA. Agarose gel is placed in the container (this gel has varying sizes of holes to allow certain sizes of the DNA through. The agarose gel and DNA pieces are submerged in water, which is a good conductor of electricity. The reason for the the water is because the container that the gel and DNA are in act like a battery where one side is negative and the other side is positive. Once electricity is wired to the container the DNA will move towards the positive side because DNA is naturally negative. A computer will analyze the results and present a picture that shows little hyphens that represent the distance that every piece of DNA traveled within the gel. This helps identify people with similar DNA sequences.

### Subject:Anatomy

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Question:

How does sweating work to cool down the body?

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Kristen A.

Sweating is a bodily function that is used to cool the body down when the internal body temperature gets too high. The ways that is does this by secreting sweat (a combination of water and salt) to be released just below the skin from sweat glands. When the sweat comes to the surface of the skin it is wicked away by the atmosphere in the form of evaporation, when this happens the sweat leaves the body bringing with it some of the body heat and slowly cooling the body. Sweating is a great technique however, it is only productive when the atmosphere has a lesser concentration of water compared to your body otherwise the sweat will remain on your skin. There are other physiological effects from sweating as well. Let me know if you need help with that as well.

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