What are the four independent uses of the subjunctive mood?
Hortatory (1st person)/jussive (3rd person): Navigamus!: Let us sail! Bellum gerant. / Let them wage war. Optative: Utinam moriatur! / If only he would die! / Would that he would die! Deliberative: Quo veniam? / Where am I to go? Potential: Metuas me. / You might fear me. Metueres me. / You might have feared me.
When should one use "wenn" versus "wann"?
"Wann" is used only in direct or indirect questions. e.g. Wann kommt er nach Hause? / When is he coming home? (direct question) Ich weiß nicht, wann er nach Hause kommt. / I don't know, when he is coming home. (indirect question -- notice when "wann" is part of a subordinate clause, it kicks the verb to the end of the clause.) "Wenn" starts a temporal or conditional clause. e.g. Wenn sie nach Hause kommt, werde ich tanzen. When / If she comes home, I will dance.
What are the effects of using hypotaxis versus parataxis in an essay?
Hypotaxis, or the use of subordination, allows the text to flow with less abrupt interruption and allows different parts of the sentence to have various levels of emphasis. Contrarily, parataxis (the use of simple sentences) is used when one wants to assign each sentence the same value.