Tutor profile: Sai R.
Which of the following will cause a blood pH of 9? A) Decreased O2 Concentration B) Decreased tidal volume C) Increased H2O concentration D) Increased respiratory rate.
With the MCAT, you will often face discrete questions which require your own knowledge rather than being able to extrapolate information from a passage. Even before beginning to look at your given options, you should recall that the physiological blood pH at baseline is around 7.4. A blood pH of 8.2 is very alkaline compared to the average baseline. Thus, we should be identifying answer choices which would cause the blood to be less acidic/more basic. Coming to the answer choices: A) DECREASED O2 CONCENTRATION—-You should remember that O2 and CO2 have an inverse relationship in blood. By decreasing O2, you are increasing CO2. SInce CO2 is acidic, this option is making the blood more acidic—-the opposite of what we are trying to do. B) DECREASED TIDAL VOLUME- Remember that tidal volumme is the natural amount of air being exhaled per breath. By exhaling less air, there is decreased tidal volume. As a result, CO2 is building up and as discussed in option A, your blood will be getting more acidic—the opposite of what we are trying to do. C) INCREASED H2O Concentration— this may seem tempting, but remember that by increasing H2O concentration, you would not affect the pH since both the acid and base are being diluted simultaneously. D) INCREASED RESPIRATORY RATE— by hyperventilating, you are blowing out a lot of CO2. The decrease in CO2 (which is acidic) makes your blood more basic and you would see an elevation in blood pH—-this is the answer that we are looking for.
You are a painter and rest your ladder against a wall to be able to paint the top of the wall. Your ladder is 8 feet long. Using your protractor, which you never leave home without, you see that the angle of elevation is 42 degrees. How high is the point of connection between the ladder and the wall?
We know that the wall is perpendicular to the ground, so we can simplify this problem by making it a right triangle. We know that the hypotenuse of the triangle is 8 feet and the angle of elevation is 42 degrees. Since the height of the wall is “opposite” to the angle of elevation, we can use sin (SOH CAH TOA) to find the height of the wall. sin(42)=x/8 Sin(42)*8=x X= 0.669*8 X= 5.4 feet
When Pavlov conditioned his dogs to salivate at the sound of bells, he was what was the first obvious example of Classical Conditioning. How does Operant Conditioning differ from classical conditioning? Give an example of Operant Conditioning in your day to day life.
While operant conditioning focuses on voluntary behaviors, classical conditioning focuses on involuntary behaviors. In classical conditioning, actors associate a stimulus to an involuntary response. In operant conditioning, actors learn to associate a voluntary behavior with a consequence. This consequence acts as a means of reinforcing or extinguishing this voluntary behavior. An example of this giving time-outs to young children for bad behavior. If Timmy was riding his skateboard in the house and knocked over a vase, a time-out would be the consequence and would be consequence. In this specific example, the stimulus is a positive punishment because you are applying a stimulus which reduces the frequency of the behavior.