Tutor profile: Tyson S.
Subject: US Government and Politics
What is the supreme law of the land in the United States? What are some of its key attributes?
The Constitution is the highest law in the United States. It establishes the U.S.’s federal system of government and empowers both federal and state governments with the legitimate power to rule in their respective jurisdictions. It establishes three co-equal branches of government which each have checks-and-balance powers to ensure that no one branch becomes overly powerful. The Constitution also defines the limits of the federal government. The Constitution provides the federal government with enumerated powers, meaning that it only has the powers that are explicitly expressed within the document. The Constitution goes on to define the rights U.S. citizens have and it prescribes protections afforded to them in order to protect these rights. Finally, Article V of the Constitution establishes the procedure for amending the Constitution so that its legitimacy may stay intact as society evolves and progresses.
Subject: Political Science
Name the two primary forms of electoral systems in contemporary democracies. Match the electoral system to the constituency, or district, type it is typically associated with. And explain how a state’s electoral system and district type influence the development of domestic political parties.
There are two primary forms of electoral systems in today’s democracies. The first is a plurality voting system and it typically is used in conjunction with single member constituencies. The combination of a plurality voting system with single member districts tends to promote a two-party political system within domestic politics. Two major parties tend to dominate local politics because only one winner can be named in an election, so special interests tend to unite in two large parties in order to enhance their likelihood of winning elected positions. The second form of an electoral system is a proportional representation system which requires multiple member districts. This form of election allows a party to receive the number of seats in government proportionate to its support from the electorate. Say Party A receives 30% of the vote in a given election. It will then be given roughly 30% of the seats in parliament once the new parliament is seated. This system gives rise to multi-party domestic politics as it allows smaller interests to form their own parties even when they have no opportunity of receiving a plurality of votes.
Subject: International Relations
What is the Nuclear Peace Hypothesis? And how do neo-realists use this theory to explain the absence of major wars in the past seven decades?
The nuclear peace hypothesis is a theory, primarily promoted by neo-realists, that asserts when multiple nations possess nuclear weapons the likelihood of conflict decreases, even low-grade disputes, between these nations. The basic tenants of this theory are predicated on the idea of nuclear escalation. This is the idea that once a nation possesses nuclear weapons it will escalate any conflict to the point of using these weapons. However, when an opposing belligerent nation also possesses nuclear weapons, the concept of Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) will prevent both from entering a conflict. Because both states are aware that even low-grade dispute may evolve into a nuclear disaster, they both have the incentive to avoid these disputes. They will look to other forms of diplomacy to resolve conflicts (trade, international organizations, treaties, etc.) and will seek to avoid a military confrontation.
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