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Tutor profile: Natalie S.

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Natalie S.
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Questions

Subject: Writing

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Question:

What is the error in the following sentence? $(\it\text{I looked toward the horizon, I saw storm clouds gathering ominously.}$)

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Natalie S.
Answer:

This is an example of a run-on sentence. It is grammatically incorrect because it joins two noun-verb pairings ("I looked" and "I saw") with a comma. The following are examples of several ways to fix this sentence: 1. Substituting the comma for a period forms two complete sentences. $(\it\text{I looked toward the horizon. I saw storm clouds gathering ominously.}$) 2. Using a semicolon joins the two ideas in one sentence, while maintaining grammatical integrity. $(\it\text{I looked toward the horizon; I saw storm clouds gathering ominously.}$) 3. Introducing a coordinating conjuction, a word like $$\it\text{and, but,}$$ or $$\it\text{yet}$$ that joins two clauses of equal importance, is an alternative to using a semicolon. $(\it\text{I looked toward the horizon, and I saw storm clouds gathering ominously.}$) 4. Inserting a subordinating conjunction, a word that establishes a relationship of unequal importance between two clauses, will make one phrase a modifier of the other. $(\it\text{I looked toward the horizon, where I saw storm clouds gathering ominously.}$)

Subject: Biology

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Question:

A line of mutant human cells is examined in which the cells are unable to convert dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) into glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) during the fifth step of glycolysis. These cells are placed into a solution of maltose, which the cells uptake and metabolize. For each molecule of maltose, what is the cell's net production of ATP during glycolysis?

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Natalie S.
Answer:

For each molecule of glucose that undergoes glycolysis, two molecules of ATP are used in the early stages of glycolysis. Each G3P molecule is involved in the production of two ATP molecules during its conversion to pyruvate. Typically, each molecule of glucose produces two G3P molecules and thus four ATP during glycolysis. However, our mutant cells cannot convert DHAP to G3P, meaning that only one G3P molecule is metabolized and only two ATP are produced. Since two ATP are used and two are produced, the net ATP production for one glucose molecule is zero. Maltose is a disaccharide consisting of two glucose molecules joined by an $$\alpha$$-1,4 glycosidic linkage. Thus, for each maltose molecule metabolized, two glucose molecules undergo metabolism. Since the net ATP production for each glucose molecule is zero, the net production for maltose is also zero.

Subject: Calculus

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Question:

Demonstrate that the vector field $$F=\ <\cos y,\ \cos y-x\sin y>$$ is conservative.

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Natalie S.
Answer:

A vector field of the form $$F=<P, Q>$$ is conservative if $$\frac{\partial P}{\partial y}=\frac{\partial Q}{\partial x}$$. For the given vector field $$F$$, $(\frac{\partial P}{\partial y}=\frac{\partial}{\partial y}(\cos y)=-siny$) $(\frac{\partial Q}{\partial x}=\frac{\partial}{\partial x}(\cos y-x\sin y)=-siny$) Since these two statements are equivalent, vector field $$F$$ is conservative.

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