Tutor profile: Lilly S.
Subject: Library and Information Science
What does the term, 'library' mean to you in the 21st century?
Libraries have traditionally been the cornerstones of communities for centuries, often the only option for those outside of a privileged background to take advantage of books and assistance from information professionals. In recent years many aspects of the library have been replaced by digital sources such as Google, Google Books, online tutorials and tutors and quick answers which have taken the place of the reference desk. In specialty libraries such as medical and law libraries, references services are still a high priority because of the nature of the work but for academic and public libraries where information is becoming more accessible to the average internet user, library staff have taken a hit. In article entitled, Issues and Trends in the Management of Reference Services: A Historical Prospective, author Tyckson examines the recent strain on library administrations, “Another issue for reference managers is determining the type of service to provide within any given model. One question that arises in any service model is whether librarians should spend more time answering user queries or spend more time teaching users how to find the answer themselves.” (p. 587). The issue of providing continuous reference support to patrons versus patrons seeking and finding information for themselves directly contributes to staff retention and cuts at reference desks in academic and public libraries. With administrations budget cuts it is expected that staff hours will be cut or reduced. Are reference desks going to be replaced by iPads and laptops? As evidence that staff is unfortunately often the first to go, an article written about a library in Pennsylvania examines the cuts to services by administration at the local public library, “Library Executive Director Diana Suffre said around 20 staff members would be affected. In addition, library hours will be reduced by 35%; spending on new materials will be cut by 50%; open computer labs and all non-grant funded outreach programming will be suspended and reference services, children’s programming and inter-library loan services will be reduced.” (p.34). With staff and reference services often the first to be cut or reduced in many libraries around the country due to technological advancements, this is an ever present issue facing administrations today.
Which laws may apply to evidence procedure(s)?
Exclusionary Rule: Provides that any evidence obtained by the government in violation of the 4th amendment guarantee against unreasonable search and seizure is NOT admissible in prosecution. -The purpose of this rule is to deter police conduct. Silver Platter Doctrine: Applies to federal courts from 1914-1960 provides that evidence of a federal crime that has been illegally obtained by state officers was admissible in federal courts but that evidence COULD NOT be obtained if not for federal officers. CASE: Mapp Vs. Ohio- The exclusionary rule is now applied to STATE criminal proceedings. The rule can apply in pretrial, at the time of evidence offered in court and in post-conviction such as habeas corpus. Proceedings Exclusion DOES NOT apply in private party searches, grand jury investigations, post-conviction sentencing, non-criminal cases. Trial arrest, cases where only an agency rule is violated.
Subject: Political Science
“What affects Minority Interests Within City Governments on a State Level?”
The United States has built its character on democracy and the chance for all citizens to be represented fairly and equally as expressed in amendments to the constitution. In recent times the demographics of the United States has changed. American cities play a significant role in government and often times are the ladder between citizens of states and the federal government. I am essentially looking to find what variables such as bi-partisanship or socioeconomic status contributes to minority interests in cities with substantial minority populations and how that ultimately translates to state policies and funds. The study of minority interests at the city and state level are essential for the future of politics. As our country becomes increasingly diverse, how and to what extent minority groups are represented is vital. My research will highlight the possible causes and effects of disparities that may exist between minorities in major cities in the United States and their interests on the state level. I divided my previous literature into topics of historical traditions/studies of policies in cities with minority interests and monetary funds allocated to cities by state governments. The definition of ‘city government’ according to Alan Saltzstein is a municipality which performs a wide range of government functions such as but not limited to: public safety, parks and recreation and city planning. This makes city duties, those determined primarily by the residents and their delegates, within the boundaries of state and federal law. The definition of minority interests was difficult to find so I combined a definition from both Saltzstein and John Longres on Longres’ study of minority groups within U.S. states. ‘Minority Interests’ are defined as, a set of concerns or matters that are important to a certain group or subset of people. Such groups evolve because they share common and implicit interests as a result of sharing specific social and historical conditions under which they live. Longres definition was appealing because it explained why or how minorities could identify themselves with, ‘sharing social and historical conditions’.
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