Tutor profile: Rachel M.
Subject: US Government and Politics
To what extent and in what ways did the conflict between federalists and anti-federalists over the ratification of the Constitution reflect each side’s different understanding of the primary goal for which the American Revolution had been fought?
The Federalists and Anti-Federalists both had very strong viewpoints on the ratification of the Constitution. Federalists, led by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay, favored the ratification. They wanted a powerful federal government and argued that a Bill of Rights was not needed because the federal power was to be limited. The leaders of the Federalists produced essays known as the Federalist Papers, outlining their arguments in favor of ratification. The Anti-Federalists, however, opposed the ratification because they wanted a weak federal government and were in favor of more powerful states governments. They also wanted a Bill of Rights to protect the rights of the citizens. These two sides show pretty much what they thought the war was about. The Anti-Federalists thought the point of the war was to hand power over to smaller bodies of governments and to keep power out of a single person’s hands, while the Federalists thought the point was to put the power in the hands of a person, but to limit that person’s power by introducing checks and balances. Both parties assumed the point was to limit an all-powerful being, they were just not agreeing on who that power should be given to.
Pick ONE of the conditions of modeling and ONE element of IPT, then (1) in the first sentence, name which modeling condition and which IPT element you chose, then (2) briefly explain how your chosen element of information processing theory can be used to make your chosen condition of modeling a more effective instructional strategy in the classroom. Then (3) illustrate how this would work with a specific example in the classroom where modeling is used with a STUDENT model. Be sure your explanation makes it clear that you understand both the condition of modeling and the element of information processing theory that you have chosen. Conditions of modeling: attention, retention, motivation, or production Elements of Information Processing Theory: attention, perception, working memory, encoding, long- term memory, or retrieval
The element of the Information Processing Theory I chose was the process of encoding, which occurs between the working memory and the long-term memory. The condition of modeling I chose to talk about is retention. Both are very important when it comes to students in the classroom. In the conditions of modeling, retention is when the learner must remember what the model did, by storing it in the long-term memory, this is achieved through encoding. Encoding, which is the transformation as well as the transfer of information into the long-term memory, requires selective attention, deciding what is important enough to store for later retrieval. There are two types of information encoded, explicit and implicit. Explicit knowledge are memories that can be consciously recalled, like facts, knowledge, and experiences. There are a few different ways to enhance encoding, such as hooking it to prior knowledge, organization, visual imagery, and elaboration. Both the idea of retention and encoding are important in the human mind, but they’re especially important in the classroom, where students are regularly tested on their ability to recall facts or prove their understanding. In 1967, a study by Gerald R. Miller found that students who regularly use mnemonic devices had tests scores that increased up to 77 percent. Mnemonics are memory devices that help learners recall larger pieces of information, especially information that includes steps, stages, phases, parts, etc. One of the most famous mnemonic devices is introduced early on in education, and it is PEMDAS. PEMDAS can also be said as “Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally”, and is the order in which mathematical operations are performed. PEMDAS is broken down into: Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction. The following is an example of PEMDAS in practice: (3 x 2 + 92) – 7 We would do what is in parentheses first, so we only look at the (3 x 2 + 92) first. Exponents are the second step (92 is 81) so the problem turns into (3 x 2 + 81) Multiplication is the next step (3 x 2 is 6) (6 + 81) - 7 Since there is no division in this problem, we skip to addition (6 + 81 is 87) 87 – 7 Finally we have subtraction (87 – 7 is 80) So we come to the answer of 80. Some other examples of name mnemonics are ROY G BIV, which is an aide to remember the order of the colors of the rainbow (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, and Violet), FANBOYS, which help the recall of the 7 coordinating conjunctions in the English language (For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So). When I was in school, I learned the order of the nine planets (this is before Pluto was ruled not a planet) by learning: My (Mercury) Very (Venus) Educated (Earth) Mother (Mars) Just (Jupiter) Served (Saturn) Us (Uranus) Nine (Neptune) Pizzas (Pluto). Mnemonics turn original information into an easy, more appealing rhyme or sentence, which can be stored in the brain as an easy reference for larger more meaningful “chunks”. This helps because people, for some reason, remember fairly nonsensical combinations better than we retain the original information. Even in college, this has helped me. For example, on the chapter 2 test, one of my classmates turned the ways to attract attention into “SIP MINE”, which is something you say to grab the attention of someone to get them to try your coffee. SIP MINE stands for Size, Intensity, Personal Significance, Movement, Incongruity, Novelty, and Emotion. There’s even an mnemonic to remember how to spell mnemonic: My Never Ending Memory Only Notices Incoming Clues.
Subject: US History
Identify and explain THREE key moments that helped to unite American colonists around the cause of independence.
American colonists didn’t agree on much prior to the French and Indian War. They were two different types of people. But following the French and Indian War, a few things helped the colonists unite around the idea of independence. ONE was the direct consequences of the French and Indian War itself. Following the war, colonists had a lot of post-war enthusiasm and felt more connected to the British because of their contribution to the war. Because the war doubled the national debt in Britain, Parliament thought it was time for the colonies to start paying their part of the British empire. TWO was the passage of the first direct tax on the colonists- The Stamp Act of 1765. This act said that all paper products, including newspapers, legal documents, magazines, etc. required a tax for using them. This outraged a lot of colonists because they had virtually no say in whatever taxes were going to be imposed on them. Even though the tax was repealed in 1766, the grounds had already been laid for the road to independence. THREE was the passage of the Intolerable Acts of 1774, which was a series of acts passed, aimed at punishing the colonies for the Boston Tea party. The Boston Port Act closed the port which meant no shipping could happen into or out of Boston, which was a primarily merchant town. The Quartering Act required private homeowners to allow soldiers to stay in their homes. The Administration of Justice Act allowed the trials of soldiers to be moved to Nova Scotia and the Massachusetts Government Act created a new charter for MA. All of these events only fueled the colonists to want to protect their rights and their liberties.
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