Tutor profile: Alexandria D.
What is refeeding syndrome and what is the physiology behind it?
Refeeding syndrome occurs when re-introducing food to patients in a prolonged starvation state. People at risk are those suffering from anorexia, alcohol dependence, cancer, and other diseases that cause patients to severely decrease their food intake. During a starvation state patient's do not have adequate intake of glucose, causing the body produces high levels of glucagon to help the body use proteins and fats for energy and to create glucose through gluconeogensis. High glucagon levels cause intracellular substrates to move outside of the cell to keep blood levels relatively normal. These substrates include potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and calcium. During refeeding, the increased oral intake of carbohydrates, fats, sugars, allows the body to go back to using the glucose from food versus using the protein and fats inside the body. The increased oral glucose causes the body to produce insulin and decrease the amount of glucagon. The increased insulin production causes the potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, etc to re-enter the cells, causing blood levels of these to be very low. The low levels of phosphorous in particular can be very dangerous for the patient. Low phosphorous causes muscle weakness, especially of the diaphragm, causing difficulty breathing. Additionally, severely low phosphorus can cause rhabdomyolysis or the break down of muscles by the body.
What is the difference between meiosis and mitosis.
Meiosis and mitosis are processes by which cells undergo division to make new cells. Mitosis is the division of cells within the body, and meiosis is the division of sex cells (spermatozoa and oocytes). Mitosis ends up producing two identical daughter cells from the original parent cell. Meiosis in sperm ends up making 4 daughter cells, that have genetic crossover, and meiosis in oocytes ends up making one daughter cell and 3 bar bodies. Mitosis produces diploid cells or having two complete sets of chromosomes. Meiosis produces haploid cells that have only one set of chromosomes.
Which lung, right or left, is the lingula located? Additionally, which lobe of that lung is it located on?
The lingula is located solely on the left lung, particularly on the superior lobe.
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