Tutor profile: Alma M.
How do I create an outline for a paper?
First, BRAINSTORM ideas, either using a mind map or just by jotting things down on a blank piece of paper. Then, try to find connections between your ideas, and see if any interesting new thoughts occur to you during this process. This is how you form your THESIS, or the argument behind your paper. Next, ARRANGE your ideas in a logical way. Your introduction should state your thesis and briefly list the pieces of evidence you are going to use, in the order that they will appear. Generally, you should stick to one paragraph per piece of evidence, or, for longer papers, use headings to mark off the paragraphs related to certain pieces of evidence. Your conclusion should summarize the evidence you just presented and then restate your thesis. In other words, your introduction should generally move from abstract to specific and your conclusion should do the reverse.
Subject: English as a Second Language
What is the difference between lie, lay, lain, and laid?
These are multiple tenses of two different verbs: to lie (which is intransitive, meaning it does not take an object) and to lay (which is transitive, meaning it takes an object. For example, in the sentence "I lie down," "lie" is intransitive. "I" is the subject doing the action ("lie down"), but there is no object. In the sentence, "I lay down the book," "lay" is transitive. "I" is the subject doing the action ("lay down") to the object ("the book"). Where it gets confusing is that "lay" is also the past-tense form of "lie." See below for an explanation of the tenses. Present: Lie ("I lie") Past: Lay ("I lay") Past participle: Lain ("I have lain") Present: Lay ("I lay") Past: Laid ("I laid") Past participle: Laid ("I have laid")
Explain the difference between structuralist and post-structuralist theories of literature.
Structuralism argues that the essential components of a text should be examined in terms of their relationship to each other in order to ascertain meaning. Structuralism interprets literature through the lens of things like genre, narrative structure, and connections with other texts. Post-structuralism argues that aspects of literature like narrative and author should be questioned, rather than taken as-is. Roland Barthe's "death of the author" concept is one common example of this. Post-structuralists appreciate deviations from traditional narrative structures and are skeptical of grand narratives of the world.
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