Tutor profile: Emmanuel R.
You are reading a story about a quarrel between 2 groups of people. Every now and then, there is a character who appears in the story who, although the 2 groups in the story consider this character "crazy," he often provides insights and becomes a confidant to the groups in the story due to his perceived naiveté. What possible role does this character represent?
The character is taking the role of the "Shakespearean fool."
Subject: Biomedical Science
You are studying secreted protein X from your cells of interest. You stimulate your cells to secrete even more protein X into the media. You decide to perform both a western blot (from the cells) and an ELISA (from the cell media) to quantify its expression. While the ELISA clearly shows protein X increasing (relative to control), the western blot results show the opposite effect! Provide one technical and one biological explanation for the phenomenon.
A technical explanation would be that the antibody used to detect protein X via western blot is not detecting the correct protein. A biological explanation would be that the cells are secreting protein X at an accelerated rate. Therefore, you would have less of protein X inside the cells, but more of it in the cell media.
How is it that the innermost part of a tumor receives little-to-now oxygen, yet still survives and grows?
This is due to the Warburg Effect, where cancer cells are more reliant on an altered form of anaerobic respiration. Therefore, glucose is the main source for generating ATP. While it is not as efficient as aerobic respiration, it is performed much more quickly than in normal cells. It also has the added benefit of turning on the TCA cycle, which in turn, contributes to nucleotide, amino acid, and lipid synthesis. Thereby generating more material for rapidly-dividing cells.
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