Tutor profile: Anna M.
What do loanwords in Hungarian tell us about the history of the country?
Most loanwords in Hungarian come from donor languages such as Turkish, Slavic languages and German. The interchanging of phrases and words is the result of a long historical process of political and economic occupations with the effect of population shifts, and tells us about the relationships Hungary had with bordering countries during various stages of history. The first influence on the Hungarian language came from Slavic tribes during the early migration periods of 8th and 9th centuries. Many words were adapted during the Turkish occupation of Hungary, when the country gained its biggest Muslim population to date. The last major linguistic interchange period was during the time of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, when a number of German words were introduced into the Hungarian language, in order to assimilate the populations of the two countries.
Subject: US History
What elements of US culture made it possible for the 60's counterculture to emerge?
‘The Sixties began with a shot’ claims the first sentence of When You’re Strange Tom DiCillo’s 2010 movie on the Doors, one of the most influential bands of the 1960s. Although the assassination of JF Kennedy might have been the direct catalyst for the emergence of a widespread political activism, its roots go deeper into the decades preceding the 1960s. The counterculture did not appear out of nowhere, and did cause radical change in American culture and society, but rather, had its continuities and discontinuities with the times preceding and following the movement. The main roots of the movement come from the 1950s, while the Age of Affluence, wide access to education, previous political and cultural movements and globalisation made it possible for the counterculture of the 1960s to emerge. As Susan-Mary Grant explained ‘There were a lot of angry young men around in the mid-1950s, of course; it was hardly a phenomenon unique to America, but it had a particular resonance in a nation that seemed, to some of its citizens, to combine complacency with corruption, material wealth with moral poverty.’
Subject: European History
Did the Enlightenment cause the increased secularisation processes of 19th century Europe?
The general assumption about Enlightenment and religion is that they were polarities, that it was an age of ‘downright religious apathy’ , but the picture is more complex than that. Reason and rationality intertwined with every aspect of Enlightened thinking, and religion was no exception. To say that the Enlightenment was anti-religious would be an overstatement, but it was often reformist, or even revolutionary. They analysed religion, and tried to point out its benefits, but rationalizing religion for some resulted in rejection and scepticism. The ‘philosophes’ agreed on main points attacking the Church, but had different approaches and understanding on the subject. Rousseau ends The Social Contract with a section on religion, where he proposes that humankind needs a long time to accept their masters, who they thought of as gods as their equals. He suggests that divisions between nations led to polytheism and intolerance, and that modern states cannot be governed well due to the conflict of jurisdiction created by the duality of the power of a king and civil laws and the Church’s doctrines. Rousseau is not against religion, and according to him there should be religious tolerance. By the end of his argument he comes up with the idea that the state should grant freedom of religion, but at the same time would have to seek out ones, that are harmful to the society and ban them. The paradox of his argument goes on, when he says that society should follow some religious doctrines. But there were other contemporary writers, who were more critical of religion. David Hume with his scepticism, Diderot and the materialistic worldview or D’Holbach and the salon of atheism. The fact that a definition for atheism and deism were given in the Encyclopédie shows how distinct and progressive Enlightenment debates were on the topic of religion. The disputes showed people that it is okay to think for yourself, question the Scriptures and not take the preaching of the sermons for granted. Redefining its role of religion and the Church helped the cause of religious tolerance in 18th century Europe, it made an end to religious wars, but also led to more secularised nation states of the 19th century.
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