Tutor profile: Jared H.
What are some tips for diagramming logic game rules effectively?
1. Memorize the rules by reading them three times: once to diagram them, once to look for inferences, and once to eliminate possibilities from the first question. 2. Diagram should be on the second page next to most of the questions. 3. Usually use one game board with rules represented next to it. 4. Only split into multiple game boards to diagram all the possibilities if you have a rule that is easy to "split" the game based on, if the game contains many questions, if the game creates few possible worlds, and if the questions give no new rules.
What steps should a student follow when writing a research paper?
The research paper is a common form of persuasive writing required in classes on English, History, and other academic disciplines. When writing a research paper, I suggest the following steps: 1. Choose your topic. Identify a broad topic that interests you and relates to the topic of the course (for instance, if the course covers the history of American aviation, you could choose Charles Lindbergh's contributions to aviation). 2. "Sharpen" your topic. Once you've chosen a topic, you need to "sharpen" it so that it is clear, narrow, and arguable. To do this, read an encyclopedia entry about your topic to get a broad overview (asking your instructor for ideas is also useful). If some aspect of the article peaks your interest, try to turn it into a debatable question about which you could find sources to support an argument (for instance, if you read that Charles Lindbergh became a national celebrity after his solo flight from New York to Paris, you could "sharpen" your topic to "What factors led to Charles Lindbergh's national celebrity status after his famous flight?"). 3. Identify sources. The best way to do this is to first think through what kinds of evidence you would like to find for your topic so you know what to search for (for our Lindbergh example, you likely want a biography of Lindbergh and any scholarly articles you can find that analyze his celebrity status). At the same time, come up with keywords or phrases that you can search on your institution's library website or on Google Scholar. 4. Read your sources. Regularly review your research topic to ensure that you only take notes on material that is relevant to that topic. I recommend making notes on each source in a separate document so you can differentiate between each source. Also, be sure to add page numbers to each quote or paraphrase so you can make proper citations later! 5. Construct an outline. Most research papers should follow the same basic structure: Introduction (includes thesis statement), Body (in which you present the evidence you've gathered to support your thesis), and Conclusion (in which you summarize and wrap up the paper). Before you begin this step, read through all of your notes from Step 4 so you can determine your thesis (what you are arguing) and can create arguments with evidence that support it. 6. Draft your paper. If you've created an effective outline as suggested above, this step will be relatively easy! Just follow your outline by creating a topic sentence at the beginning of each new paragraph that summarizes a piece of the evidence from the outline, and then using the paragraph to describe the evidence. 7. Edit your paper. You should read through your paper at least three times, each time focusing on different things. First, read through to ensure that your argument is well constructed and supported. Ask yourself whether you need to add more evidence or move evidence from one part of the paper to another. Second, read through to check the sentence structure and "flow" of the paper (ideally, you should read it out loud this time). Third, read through to check for errors in grammar, spelling, or citations.
Subject: US History
Two of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.'s Supreme Court opinions, Schenck v. United States (1919) and Abrams vs. United States (1919), changed constitutional legal history by adopting the clear and present danger test, which prohibited the Federal Government from restricting anti-government speech unless that speech created a serious, imminent danger of civil disobedience. How and when did Holmes develop these views of free speech?
The evidence suggests that Holmes developed the basic principles of his free speech viewpoints in his writings on American common law, and also that his clear and present danger test and emphasis on the importance of free speech did not emerge until 1919, after several young legal thinkers had encouraged him to change his thinking. After learning the traditional view of free speech during law school, Holmes began the process of changing his views in his common law writings. Holmes’s book The Common Law explored when the law could punish criminal attempts and offered the "imminent danger" standard - which would later reappear in his free speech opinions - as the answer. In his Harvard Law Review article entitled “Privileges, Malice, and Intent,” Holmes began to explore what would become the second element of his “clear and present danger” test: subjective intent. On the other hand, Holmes did not produce his fully-developed free speech viewpoints until his Schenck and Abrams opinions. Encouragement and arguments from Harvard law professor Zechariah Chafee, Jr. and US District Court Judge Learned Hand forced Holmes to reconsider his ideas. Holmes used Schenck to unveil his clear and present danger test, and used Abrams to begin openly advocating for greater free speech rights.
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