Tutor profile: Austin F.
Subject: US History
Were ‘push-’ or ‘pull-’ factors more important when explaining second wave immigration to the United States?
Although both push and pull factors were important in explaining second wave immigration to the United States from about 1850 to about 1920, there is good evidence that push factors such as famines, religious intolerance and economic conditions at home were more important than pull factors in this period. Most Irish immigration in the second wave was a result of potato famines in the mid-19th century, and the relatively low rate of re-emigration (returning to the home country) is evidence that it was a push-factor decision for most Irish immigrants in this period. Jewish immigration from Russia and Eastern Europe, which exploded during the second wave, was driven by increasing intolerance and pogroms in that area: many Jewish immigrants feared for their lives or livelihoods and this motivated their permanent move to the uncertain prospects of the United States. Italian immigration, in contrast to that of Ireland, was also economic in nature, as the effects of the Italian civil war pushed many millions of Italians to the United States: something like 10-15% of them returned to Italy once those conditions subsided, evidence that their immigration a push factor decision for at least some Italians, more than a pull factor decision. Push factors in their home countries were in many cases the more direct reason for second wave immigration than were pull factors of conditions in the United States.
Should economic policymakers use fiscal or monetary policy in response to stubbornly high levels of unemployment in an economy?
Economic policymakers should use fiscal stimulus in order to address high unemployment because it is an indication of weak demand and producer uncertainty. Although monetary policy might also be useful, fiscal stimulus is more likely to have a direct effect on the level of unemployment for three reasons. Government jobs programs, a classic large-scale fiscal stimulus used in several New Deal programs, are an example of how policymakers in the past have dealt with unemployment. Their effectiveness in the past is a powerful argument for this type of program in cases of persistent high unemployment. Increased government spending means that more suppliers to the government (for example, contractors to build a bridge) will have more work and therefore demand a greater number of employees. Fiscal stimulus in the form of government infrastructure programs were another feature of New Deal programs that worked well in the past. However, fiscal stimulus tools must also be carefully wielded if the goal is to reduce unemployment. Like monetary policy, poorly designed fiscal stimulus can have ambiguous effects on unemployment, for example the use of 2017 tax cuts to fund stock repurchases rather than expand employment as intended. Because these stock repurchases did not directly (or even indirectly) affect unemployment, fiscal stimulus needs to be carefully designed for maximum effect.
Account for the importance of a firm’s supply chain and discuss the impact of disruptions to a firm’s supply chain.
Supply chains involve the steps needed to produce a good or service for the firm. A supply chain covers all of the factors of production for the firm, including the resources it needs to produce, the costs and locations of those resources, transportation involved in moving resources or inputs, and the management of inventory in the case of physical assets used in production. The supply chain is best thought of as all of the factors a firm needs in order to make what it sells, and as such is vital to a firm’s management. Disruptions to the supply chain directly affect the firm’s ability to produce, the costs of production, and the time involved. In the case of a service, supply chains might involve the facilities in which the service is delivered, for example, and the disruption of access to that facility would have a major impact on the ability of the firm to sell its service. Managing disruptions to the supply chain involves multiple, redundant supplier relationships, alternatives to facility-based operations and contingencies for remote delivery of the service. For example, a dog groomer might need multiple suppliers of shampoos and implements and mobile vans for on-site services in addition to its base facility.
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