Tutor profile: Robyn B.
What is the main difference between positive and negative reinforcement?
When a behavior is followed immediately by some sort of reinforcement, the likelihood of that behavior continuing in the future is increased. There are two different types of reinforcement - positive and negative. Both types will increase the likelihood of the behavior continuing in the future. Positive reinforcement does this by adding a reinforcing stimulus to the environment directly after a response has taken place. Giving a child a cookie after they say please is a good example of positive reinforcement. The addition of the cookie after the response reinforces that behavior and increases the likelihood of it continuing. Negative reinforcement increases the likelihood of a future behavior by terminating or avoiding a stimulus. An individual that hears a phone ring can stop the ring by picking up the phone - thus the ringing sound is removed from the environment and the person knows to pick up the phone the next time the ringing sound occurs. The main difference between the two types of reinforcement then becomes the addition of a stimulus after a response (positive reinforcement) and the removal of a stimulus after a response (negative reinforcement).
Describe the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
Aerobic respiration incorporates oxygen into the metabolic functions. After glycolysis, pyruvate can either be converted into Acetyl-CoA and start the Krebs Cycle (or Citric Acid Cycle) or into lactate. When the pyruvate is used for the aerobic metabolic system, the Acetyl-CoA jump starts the Krebs Cycle and the by-products of the two turns of the Krebs Cycle are further used to initiate the Electron Transport Chain (ETC). The ETC incorporates oxygen to the H+ ions carried by FADH2 and NADH. The aerobic respiratory system is more predominant during longer duration, lower intensity activity. This system takes a little longer to produce ATP, but the number of ATPs produced is much higher than during anaerobic respiration. The anaerobic respiration system does not convert pyruvate to Acetyl-CoA. Instead, pyruvate is converted into ethanol, lactate, or is used during the process of fermentation. The anaerobic respiratory system is more predominant during short duration, high intensity activity. ATP is available quickly but the number is limited and generally produces high traces of lactic acid - which leads to muscle soreness and fatigue.
In terms of the nervous system, what is the breakdown and function of the CNS and the PNS? Include all of the different branches of the PNS and describe whether they are voluntary or involuntary when necessary.
The CNS (Central Nervous System) is composed of the brain and the spinal cord. The brain acts as the integration center and the spinal cord transmits information to and from the body. The PNS (Peripheral Nervous System) is composed of many parts. The first distinction is between the sensory division and the motor division. The sensory (or also known as afferent) division carries signals from the receptor to the CNS. The motor (or also know as efferent) division carries signals from the CNS back to the receptors (glands and muscle cells.) The sensory division is composed of two parts - visceral sensory, which carries messages from the viscera (thoracic and abdominal cavities) and the somatic sensory, which carries signals from the skin, muscles, bones, and joints. The motor division is also composed of two parts - the somatic motor division, which carries signals from the CNS to the muscle cells. The somatic motor division is considered to be under voluntary control. The second division is the autonomic nervous system which carries signals to the glands, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle. This system is considered to be under involuntary control. The Autonomic Nervous System can be further broken down into the sympathetic nervous system (which controls fight or flight reflexes) and the parasympathetic nervous system (which controls the "rest & relax" effect).
needs and Robyn will reply soon.