Tutor profile: Megan H.
Subject: US Government and Politics
What was the impact of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution?
During the Vietnam conflict in the 1960s, President Johnson enacted the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution in 1964. Essentially, the resolution resulted in unbridled presidential war power and the ability to engage in war without consent of the other branches of government as a means to contain communism. The impact of such a resolution is the disregard for checks and balances among the three branches of government. As confidence in the Vietnam conflict eroded, and America pulled away from the Vietnam War, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was replaced with the War Powers Act of 1973. The War Powers Act limited the executive reach and power over involvement in war to prevent full scale prolonged involvement without the consent of Congress.
What was Pavlov's contribution to behavioral psychology?
Pavlov was a Russian Psychologist studying salvation in dogs when paired with food. His resulting theory became the foundation of classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is when a positive stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, resulting in the the neutral stimulus eliciting the intended response. In Pavlov's study, he paired ringing a bell with dog food. The dog food is the positive stimulus and the bell is the neutral stimulus. At first, the dogs would salivate only when food was presented. But after many trials, the dogs paired the bell ringing with the food that would come next and thus started salivating once the bell rang before the food was presented. This repeatable study is often sited example of classical conditioning.
Subject: US History
What impact did Brown v. Board of Education have on desegregation in public schools?
Brown v. Board of Education is a landmark supreme court case in which the court determined that the doctrine 'separate but equal' is inherently inequitable. The case began around busing for students attending the non-white schools in Topeka Kansas and how inequitable busing resources were between white and non white schools. Throughout the case, Brown argued that not only are resources between the schools unequal, the very separation of students is inherently unequal. Brown used dolls and asked elementary students to choose which dolls had more value. By and large all children, regardless of race, chose the 'white' doll. These students further explained that 'white' children are more valuable because they have access to all the supplies and resources the non-white schools lacked. The supreme court returned a precedent setting decision that separate is inherently unequal and in violation of the 14th amendment. The court required segregated schools to integrate with all due speed. Further, the case became a precedent for later cases which would require certain minimal levels of diversity and mandated that school districts bus and redistrict to account for white flight, and de facto segregation. Brown v. Board of Education began the long and tumultuous process of integrating all public facilities.
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