I keep rereading my books and going to class, but I can't seem to remember the information I read or heard on the test – how do I study so I remember what I learned ?
CRASH COURSE in STUDYING One of the best ways to learn information and to retain it is to INTERACT with it in VARIOUS ways. Reading and listening are often passive activities, and though you may remember the information in the moment, you may not remember all the of it on the test; however, reading and listening to information are forms of interaction (but you need more!). In order to fully retain what you've learned, you can try manipulating the information. Create flash cards for important terms or ideas and test yourself first by trying to guess the simple terms, but then try looking at the words and then explaining the definitions to yourself or friends. Make your own study guides and connect ideas by color-coding them a certain way so that you know what connects, draw pictures to remind you of important terms, create mnemonics to remember concepts, and make acronyms for groups of words that go together. Read the books, read the slides, listen to lectures if you've recorded them. Create word maps or put post-its on your wall. Try to find at least 4 ways to interact with the information as you want to get the subject into your brain in as many forms as possible. Once you've figured out what helps you retain the most amount of information at once, go over it again and again, SPACING it day by day. Teachers are usually right when they say not to cram, and psychology shows that spacing learning over a period of days yields better retainment than cramming. Divvy up the information you need to know for the exam into several days, so that you review and interact with 1-3 lessons a day in depth. Then three days before the exam, begin reviewing ALL the information together, and you'll find that spending time interacting with the lessons individually, in multiple ways, paid off, and you just have to continuously REVIEW the information until it's time for the exam. Remember: 1) Interact 2) Spacing 3) Review
What is the influence of NMDA receptors in schizophrenia?
As characterized by the DSM 5, schizophrenia is a genetically influenced mental disorder consisting of disturbances in emotion, behavior, and thought and is a condition particularly known for producing psychosis–positive symptoms like delusions and hallucinations . These psychotic symptoms have been hypothesized to be related to neural dysconnectivity resulting from hypoactive glutamatergic and hyperactive dopaminergic neurons and synapses in the brain’s frontal lobe–particularly the prefrontal cortex (PFC), striatum, and cingulate cortices–which is involved with motor functioning, memory, self-perception, and cognitive functioning. In regards to symptoms of psychosis in schizophrenia, the protein N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), an ion channel receptor located in the glutamatergic post-synapses of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), has been thought to be involved with the pathophysiology of positive symptoms like auditory hallucinations and memory distortion. At these schizophrenic glutamatergic synapses, NMDA demonstrates hypofunction, allowing less sodium ions into the postsynaptic dendrite, which in turn decreases glutamatergic neurons’ signaling through and decreases synaptic strength and plasticity. NMDA hypofunction decreases retrieval of episodic memory and induces positive symptoms in healthy subjects as a result of decreased signaling in the PCC as well as other regions like the hippocampus and precuneus, implying that NMDA hypofunction impairs brain connectivity between areas related to positive symptoms. In patients with schizophrenia, NMDA is suggested to have decreased functioning and to be a crucial in the surfacing of psychosis, as hypoglutamatergic activity causing NMDA hypofunction resulted in decreased retrieval of episodic memory and increase in positive psychosis symptoms like delusions and hallucinations.
How do early childhood education programs influence the development of children from high versus low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds?
The 30 million word gap, which explains the disparity between children's vocabulary sizes in low and high socioeconomic status groups, is a well-known phenomenon in the field of early development. Though there are contentions with how large the gap may actually be, this idea that coming from a more well-off background leads to better academic outcomes and conversely coming from a less well-off background yields worser outcomes is one that has been supported consistently in developmental literature. With this information, early child educators have honed in on ways to close this gap and have examined the factors that lead to particular disparities. For many low SES families, lack of time and resources plays an incredible role in children's development. As parents are working more, home less, and making less, there is less time and money available to read to their children, to take them to stimulating museums, to cultivate their minds. Additionally, many parents, especially immigrants in the U.S., may lack the educational background to provide English based knowledge necessary for success in American schools. However, research has shown that enrollment in early childhood education programs provide children from low SES backgrounds with access to books, to field trips, to educators who can provide and extend knowledge in young minds. Researchers found that early childhood education has a significantly beneficial effect on the development of low SES children. Research has also shown that for children from high SES backgrounds, early childhood education may not have as impactful of an affect. Because children from high SES families tend to have parents who provide the time and resources necessary to benefit children's development, high SES children often do not glean as extensive as a benefit from early childhood programs as do low SES children. However, this is not to say that such programs are useless for children from high SES backgrounds. Early childhood programs provide socioemotional developmental benefits, like being around other children, that yield long-term advantages for all children.