What is the most commonly used drug to prevent clots during open heart surgery ?
Heparin, an anticoagulant produced by basophils and mast cells, is the most commonly used as it is relatively inexpensive and has a reversal agent known as Protamine.
Differentiate between bacteria and viruses.
A virus is much smaller and requires a host in order to replicate. Viruses will hijack the host cell's replication tools in order to reproduce and survive. Without a host, a virus will not survive. On the other hand, bacteria may reproduce independently and are much larger. They do not need to attach to a host cell to replicate which makes it possible for antibiotics to target them.
What are the defects associated with Tetrology of Fallot?
1. Overriding Aorta 2. VSD 3. Pulominary stenosis 4. Hypertrophic right ventricle The aorta is positioned over the VSD ( instead of the left ventricle). Blood from both of the ventricles is able to travel through the aorta. The pulmonary artery is stenotic; therefore, the blood perferentially flows through the aorta. This means both oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood travels through the aorta to the rest of the Body leading to cyanosis. To compensate, the right ventricle tries to work harder to pump blood through the pulmonary artery. Just like any other muscle, the RV because thicker aka hypertrophied from the increased workout.