What are three principles of writing one should follow for essays in any subject?
1. Your thesis guides your content: Every part of your essay should serve to explain or support your thesis, or main argument. When deciding whether to tell a story, cite a certain source, or include a particular sentence, you should ask yourself how it helps the reader believe or become interested in your thesis. There may be plenty of ideas related to the topic of your essay, but not all ideas are necessarily related to your thesis. 2. Remember what your reader does not know: It is easy to forget that someone reading your essay does not know what you know or understand something the same way. Just because something is obvious to you does not mean it is obvious to everyone. Even if your reader is an expert in the subject you are writing about, he or she is not necessarily familiar with the exact passage of the exact source you might be citing. Provide enough context or background so the reader knows where your ideas are coming from. Perhaps most importantly, do not just provide examples or ideas and assume that the reader will connect them to other parts of your essay or to your essay's argument. Instead, explain the significance and explain how one idea connects to another. 3. Explain in your own words: When you explain a concept in your own words or provide your own example, you demonstrate a true understanding of the subject matter. Although it is tempting to simply quote another author, excessive quotations suggest you are not only lazy but unsure what the author is really saying. You can also help the reader understand an abstract or complex concept by breaking it down into language that is more understandable and concrete. Writing in your own words shows that you have analyzed and interpreted relevant sources and ideas, converting them from an unorganized collection into a coherent paper.
How has the field of psychology expanded to study a larger scope of human thinking and behavior in the late twentieth and twenty-first centuries?
Psychology in the first part of the 1900s focused on understanding the disorders and problems of individuals. From Freudian psychoanalysis to Gestalt therapy, different approaches sought to help people with depression, anxiety, and other conditions. However, in the late 1900s, psychologists began to realize there is more to study than just these problems. Martin Seligman and his colleagues shifted their attention away from what is wrong with people to what is right with them, creating the sub-field of positive psychology. They recognized that mental health and human thriving was more than just the absence of psychopathology. They began to study topics such as optimism and healthy relationships. Similarly, sport psychology developed to help people be at their best in performance settings, such as sports, business, or performing arts. While clinical psychologists have developed techniques for restoring the health of unhealthy minds, researchers in sport psychology have developed techniques, such as imagery, to help perfectly healthy minds perform even better. Finally, industrial/organizational psychology has expanded psychology by examining human behavior in large group settings in work environments. It aims to help organizations function efficiently and effectively, such as by teaching leaders how to maintain motivation among employees.
What were some of the cultural developments that distinguished Early Modern Europe from Medieval Europe?
The Protestant Reformation, the Renaissance, and the Enlightenment marked some of the biggest cultural movements in Early Modern Europe. The Reformation challenged the dominance of the Catholic Church, changing the way people experienced religion and creating political upheaval within Europe. While Crusades in the Medieval era pitted Christians in Western Europe against Muslims in what is now considered the Middle East, the Reformation divided Catholics and Protestants within and between European countries, such as in the Thirty Years War. Works of Renaissance art provide a physical glimpse into the changes in beliefs and values during the Early Modern period. Compared to the darker religious art of the Medieval era, Renaissance artists focused more on celebrating people and the human body, even in religious works. This difference can be seen in the realistic features and emotion that artists depicted, and it is significant because it is just one representation of the challenge to authority and dogma frequent throughout Early Modern Europe. The Enlightenment, during the 18th century, continued the break from tradition intellectually. While Medieval Europe largely took the word of the Catholic Church and absolute monarchs as the truth, Philosophers such as Descartes and scientists such as Isaac Newton questioned such dogmatic acceptance and pioneered scientific inquiry and reason. This intellectual movement influenced politics, most notably the French Revolution.