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Paige M.
High School Biology, Physical Science, and Anatomy/Physiology Teacher
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Biology
TutorMe
Question:

Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are considered to be inverse reactions. Plants can perform both reactions, whereas animals can only perform cellular respiration. The photosynthesis equation is as follows: water + carbon dioxide + light energy --> glucose + oxygen + water Based on this equation, what are the products of cellular respiration?

Paige M.
Answer:

Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are considered to be inverse reactions; meaning that they are opposites. What one reaction produces, the other reaction uses; and vice versa. Therefore, given the equation for photosynthesis, cellular respiration must produce water, carbon dioxide, and light energy...BUT WAIT! This means that plants and animals PRODUCE LIGHT (since plants and animals perform cellular respiration, as stated in the question). Does this make sense?? There are not humans out there emitting light from their bodies! So we must think deeper and know that cell respiration takes in oxygen and glucose to produce waste products (i.e. carbon dioxide) and ENERGY, cellular energy (ATP). SO, we must exchange the light energy (in photosynthesis) for ATP when thinking about cellular respiration. Therefore, the products of cellular respiration are: carbon dioxide, water, and most importantly ATP!

Anatomy
TutorMe
Question:

Shivering is caused by muscles quickly contracting and relaxing, repeatedly. Shivering tends to occur when someone is cold. Why would shivering be a repsonse to a decrease in body temperature?

Paige M.
Answer:

When muscle cells contract and relax, they are using ATP (cellular energy) to do that work. In using this ATP, some of the energy is lost as heat in the reaction. This heat, in turn, heats the body. So when someone cold, their body responds by shivering since this reaction releases heat to warm the body.

Physical Science
TutorMe
Question:

A pendulum is swinging back and forth with a maximum kinetic energy of 750J. According to the Law of Conservation of Energy, explain the energy transfer of the swinging pendulum.

Paige M.
Answer:

First, the Law of Conservation of Energy states that "energy is not created, nor destroyed; only transformed." Second, since the pendulum is swinging (in motion), there is a transfer of energy from kinetic (energy of motion) to potential (energy of position). Since the kinetic energy is 750J, as stated in the question, all of this energy is transferred to potential energy during a full swing; as stated by the Law of Conservation of Energy. Therefore, as the pendulum swings the kinetic energy decreases as the potential energy increases and vice versa. For example, if the pendulum is halfway between the top of the swing path and the bottom of the swing path, the kinetic energy is 375J and the potential energy is 375J (totaling 750J together). When the pendulum reaches the top of the swing path, the eneryg has been totally transformed into 750J of potential energy.

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