What is the different between initializing and instantiating a variable?
Think of initializing a variable as a reservation at a restaurant and initializing the variable as actually showing up to the restaurant. Initializing a variable simply assigns a placeholder because there is no object made yet. Just like when I make a reservation at a restaurant, I (the object) am not there yet. I simply have a placeholder telling the restaurant that I will be coming. Instantiating a variable, is when I actually make the object. This is akin to showing up at the restaurant, because now I, the object, am actually there. private Computer _myLaptop; Here, I have initialized the _myLaptop variable or made a reservation. I have a placeholder for a Computer object called _myLaptop but I do not have a computer object yet. _myLaptop = new Computer(); Here, I have instantiated the object. Now, I have a real instance of the object that I can use and manipulate.
How does a positive feedback loop ever stop if it keeps feeding into itself to push the body away from equilibrium?
While the body is pushing itself away from homeostasis, the body is pushing itself away from homeostasis towards a specific goal. Once this goal is reached, the body has ways to end the positive feedback loop such as antagonists. For example, in the oxytocin feedback loop, the body keeps producing more oxytocin so the uterus can keep contracting in order to give birth to the child. Once the child is born and out of the uterus, the goal is reached. Antagonists bond to the oxytocin receptors so oxytocin can no longer bond, which means there is no more positive feedback, thus ending the loop.
How is typicality a problem for the classical view of categorization?
The classical view of categorization follows 3 rules. 1. Clear definitions. Objects have properties that are singly necessary and jointly sufficient. 2. Uniformity. All category members are equally part of the category. 3. Inflexibility. Category boundaries do not shift. Typicality violates the second rule of uniformity. Uniformity states that all category members are equally part of the category, however people think of a dolphin as a less typical mammal than a dog and a cucumber as a less typical fruit than a strawberry. This means that some category members are seen as better representatives of the category and according to uniformity that should not be possible. Thus, typicality poses a problem for the classical view of categorization.