What is brinkmanship?
Brinkmanship is when a country creates a likely threat towards another county in hopes that the other will back down. This was seen in the nuclear arms race of the Cold War between the United States and the USSR, specifically during the Cuban Missile Crisis. The USSR would only remove nuclear missiles from Cuba if the United States agreed to remove missiles from Turkey. Both countries did not want to escalate into full out nuclear war but thought that pushing the other to the brink of war would cause the other to back down when viewing the risks of war and make concessions. The United States is currently in a similar situation with North Korea, who constantly tests missiles and makes threats towards the United States without direct war.
What are some effects of the French Revolution?
The French Revolution spread republican sentiment throughout Europe causing a series of uprisings. Nationalism increased in France and throughout the world as an empire was created under Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon was able to conquer and imperialize many foreign territories under an illusion of spreading freedom. The intellectual movement of Romanticism saw some effects of the Revolution as an intrigue of emotion over logic overcame Europe after a transition from the Enlightenment. The Congress of Vienna of 1815 after the defeat of Napoleon created a new world order of relative peace and England experienced the Pax Brittanica. French military tactics contributed to the rise in militaristic states such as Prussia who was able to unify under a German nation. The original triad of the French cause was liberty, fraternity, property, as a main goal of the Revolution was securing property rights for the lower classes. Property was changed to equality, which was not won under the Revolution as the remnants of the ancient regime persisted. This led to a series of rebellions in France throughout the nineteenth century.
Why did Reconstruction fail in the United States?
Much of the South was still not loyal to the federal government even after being legally readmitted to the Union. Tension between the former Confederate states and Radical Republicans such as Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens persisted after the Civil War. Lincoln's assassination changed the future of America with Reconstruction in the hands of Andrew Johnson. The United States practiced federalism, in which power was shared among federal, state and local governments. Most Southern states advocated for states' rights and less federal intervention. They wished to practice their policies of black codes and other discriminatory measures for freed slaves in which their jobs were limited to farm work and they were not guaranteed the right to vote even after the passage of the fifteenth amendment. After the election of 1876 between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden, 20 unresolved votes went to Hayes under the Republican party in a compromise in which Republicans promised to remove federal troops from the South. The South persisted in Civil War era regulations and discrimination for roughly one hundred years more.