Tutor profile: Arrash S.
Subject: Risk Management and Insurance
How can we reduce the risk associated with an asset or activity?
Before we can discuss how to reduce risks associated with different hazards, it is essential to acknowledge that risk is the product of potential loss severity and loss probability. Within the safety profession, we typically rely on a well-established control hierarchy to reduce risk: 1. Eliminate the hazard. 2. Substitute the hazard for a less hazardous process or material. 3. Engineering control that provides physical protection in the system. 4. Administrative control to change work practices. 5. Personal protective equipment that offers physical protection on the user. Elimination and substitution are the most effective controls available but often are not practical. Meanwhile, personal protective equipment may be easy to put in place but provide less protection than other controls, which is why the vast majority of controls will be engineering and administrative in nature. However, it is crucial to keep in mind that some controls at each level reduce the probability of loss. Some reduce the severity of consequences, but others may be effective at reducing both probability and severity.
How can a writer make it easier for readers to comprehend complex information and receive key takeaways?
Many science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) and social studies fields contain volumes of complex information. This information can be challenging to understand for even experts in those fields if it is not communicated in writing properly. However, 'proper' will change some with the intended audience because their needs and prior knowledge are different. Below are a few guiding principles that will help you as a writer enable your readers to comprehend complex information and receive the message you want them to walk away with: 1. Frame your audience. Who is your reader? Why will they read what you have written? How familiar are they with the topic? Approximately how much time will the reader be willing to spend on reading the material? 2. Clearly define what you want the reader to understand or do after reading your writing. 3. Arrange your writing in a way that draws attention to the most critical information first. Some great techniques for accomplishing this include: -Using visual illustrations with captions -Bulleted lists -Providing typographical contrast for keywords and points -Placing who, what, when, where, why, and how as early in paragraph text as possible (Sometimes referred to as the upsidedown pyramid) 4. Avoid unnecessary jargon and terms that are not universally recognized. If an uncommon term or acronym must be used, explain it when it first appears in the document. 5. Keep documents clear and concise by providing details needed by the reader, but not including more than what reasonably useful.
What are the various types of error found in statistics?
There are three common errors found in statistics: Type I, Type II, and Type III. Type I errors are generally the most problematic because it means that the null hypothesis will be rejected when it should not be. A common example of this type of error would be a clinical drug trial indicating a statistically significant effect of the drug on a given medical condition, but in reality, there is no effect. Type II errors are the opposite of Type I errors, which means we failed to reject the null hypothesis when there is a statistically significant effect. Using the drug trial example, the study would indicate the drug had a statistically insignificant effect on the medical condition when there was a significant improvement in the patient's condition. Type II errors are ususally less problematic than Type I errors because they maintain the status quo, but can impede new knowledge discovery. Type III errors occur when a researcher correctly rejects the null hypothesis, but for the wrong reason. This can occur easily in correlational studies where multiple independent variables may influence the dependent variable under examination.
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