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Kathryn R.
Italian, Biology and Basic Chemistry tutor
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Italian
TutorMe
Question:

Coniuga i verbi "essere" ed "avere". (Conjugate the verbs "to be" and "to have".)

Kathryn R.
Answer:

ESSERE Io sono Tu sei Lui/Lei è Noi siamo Voi siete Loro sono AVERE Io ho Tu hai Lui/Lei ha Noi abbiamo Voi avete Loro hanno

Basic Chemistry
TutorMe
Question:

What are the different kinds of definitions for an acid and a base?

Kathryn R.
Answer:

There are three main definitions for acids and bases: Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis. 1) An Arrhenius acid dissociates to form H^{+} ions. An Arrhenius base dissociates to form OH^{-} ions. 2) A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor. A Brønsted-Lowry base is a proton acceptor. A proton, in these cases, refers to the H^{+} ion. 3) A Lewis acid accepts an electron pair. A Lewis base donates an electron pair. To recap, Arrhenius acids/bases deal with the dissociation of H^{+} ions or OH^{-} ions. Brønsted-Lowry acids/bases regard donating or accepting H^{+} ions. Lewis acids/bases assess the donating or accepting of electron pairs.

Biology
TutorMe
Question:

Outline the process of DNA replication.

Kathryn R.
Answer:

DNA replication occurs in the S phase of interphase in mitosis, where S actually stands for "synthesis of DNA". It prevails in the nucleus of eukaryotes and within the cell membrane for prokaryotes. Before explaining the process, we have to understand that there is a "leading strand" and a "lagging strand", and synthesis on these strands occur in two different ways. The leading strand is made continuously as the replication fork opens, one nucleotide after another, rather simply. The lagging strand, however, is made in fragments moving away from the fork. These fragments are called Okazaki fragments, named after molecular biologist Reiji Okazaki. Remember, DNA replication always occurs in the 5’ to 3’ direction, even when they’re being synthesized in different directions. For the process itself, many proteins are involved. Memorizing the function of each protein will naturally help in memorizing the process. 1) The process starts with DNA helicase, which unwinds the DNA molecule and separates its two strands. 2) As the strands are unwound, a strain builds up in the molecule. Topoisomerase relieves the strain as DNA helicase unwinds the molecule. 3) Single-stranded DNA proteins bind to the separated DNA strands to prevent them from binding together again. 4) RNA primase inserts an RNA primer at the start of each template strand. There is one primer on the leading strand and multiple primers on the lagging strand. 5) DNA polymerase III inserts complementary new DNA nucleotides to form the new strand based on the template strand always in the 5’ to 3’ direction. 6) DNA polymerase I remove the RNA primers at the start of the template strands. 7) DNA ligase connects the Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand, leaving two semi-conservatively replicated DNA molecules.

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