Create a sample outline for an essay discussing mental health in "The Catcher in the Rye."
Introduce the novel and theme of the essay. A. Briefly describe the novel. 1. Introduce the main character, Holden. 2. Describe the plot briefly, and how it relates to Holden and his mental health. B. Set up and introduce the thesis/essay topic. 1. Discuss Holden’s mental health at the beginning of the book and his gradual downfall and nervous breakdown. 2. Thesis: J.D. Salinger’s Catcher in the Rye allows readers to get an “inside look” at the inner workings of Holden’s mind, and what events and underlying fears contribute to his eventual nervous breakdown. II. Discuss one theme/event that contributes to Holden’s mental health: alienation. A. Introduce the topic: 1. Briefly describe Allie, Holden’s brother, and his death. 2. Discuss the impact of his brother’s death on the family and on Holden. B. Discuss the effects of this event on Holden in the novel. 1. Relate Allie’s death to Holden’s constant alienation of himself. 2. Describe how Holden’s isolation contributes to his mental health. III. Discuss a second theme/event that contributes to Holden’s mental health: parental involvement and support system. A. Where are Holden’s parents? 1. Discuss Holden’s parents and their lack of involvement in his life. (Ex. Boarding schools, dropping out constantly, etc.) 2. Mention Holden’s avoidance of his parents. He comes home from school early and doesn’t want them to know he is there. Why? Does he not trust them or is he afraid of them? Who does Holden each out to instead and why? B. If Holden’s parents had helped and supported him, how would it have affected/ changed the novel? 1. How could have having more support from his parents contribute to Holden’s education and view of the world? 2. Discuss ho his parents could have contributed to his mental state. Would Holden feel like he needs to isolate himself so much if his parents were more supportive? Does he have a distant relationship with his parents because of Allie’s death? IV. Discuss a third theme that contributes to Holden’s mental health: the idea of growing up and feeling stuck between being a child and an adult. A. Why is Holden afraid of growing up? 1. Discuss how Holden feels simultaneously like an adult, but still like a child, and how the world treats him as such. 2. Describe Holden’s view of the adult world, its phoniness, and his fear of losing his innocence. B. How does this fear contribute to his views and mental health? 1. How does this fear influence Holden’s actions, behaviors, and thinking throughout the novel? 2. How does his negative view of the world and the future further his self- destruction and eventual nervous breakdown? V. Conclude the essay and tie everything back together. A. Discuss again the themes/events that are main factors in the novel and in Holden’s mental health. 1. Discuss thesis statement. 2. Relate all the events/themes to the end of the novel and what happens to Holden. B. Introduce a new idea/comment on the themes of the novel. 1. Discuss the open-ended conclusion to the novel. 2. Brainstorm the possible outcomes and how they relate to the themes discussed. (Ex. Holden will revert back to his ways because he still doesn't have support and hasn’t dealt with his problems.)
Discuss how Joseph Conrad's "Heart of Darkness" can be considered a modernist work.
Marlow's experiences in "Heart of Darkness" represent the growing modernist movement and new ways of thinking about the world. The novella focuses greatly on the brutality and barbarism of colonization and imperialism, criticizing the Europeans, their "dark" motives, and their lying to themselves and to their families to justify their actions. Modernism deals with self-awareness and conscious and bringing new ideas to light. Joseph Conrad's critique of European imperialism is brought about by his experiences in Africa when he became more aware of its atrocities and saw them first hand.
Describe the structure, features, and uses of the Roman Colosseum.
The Colosseum was a large oval shaped arena that consisted of two semi-circle amphitheaters. It is made out of concrete, a Roman invention. Arches and the shortening of higher sections helped to lighten the weight of the concrete. Beneath the arena was a network of cages, trap doors, elevators, and lifts. These were used to transport people and animals up into the arena during a game. The Colosseum also has a network of tunnels, which brought spectators in and out of the arena quickly and efficiently. Spectators were given tickets with their section number and then followed the tunnel labeled with that number to get to their assigned section. Also, a complex hydraulics system was created to bring water in and out of the arena for naval battles where they would flood the arena floor. The Colosseum also had a retractable roof. It consisted of a net covered with canvas. IT was used to shade the arena and also keep out rain. The retractable roof has a hole in the center, which was used to trap the wind and cool off the interior of the arena, creating a sort of "ancient air conditioning."