Tutor profile: Joseph J.
I have lots of experience in linguistics. Working in a linguistics laboratory for 4 years, as well as completing field work in spanish classrooms and in South America! My main expertise is in phonetics! So let me help you learn how to transcribe and learn IPA. I do speak some Spanish, I have studied Quechua academically, Im fluent in English, and I just started learning Japanese for fun! Ex Question: What distinctive features are shared by the following phonemes [t] and [d] [a] and [m] [k] and [ŋ]
[t] and [d] are both consonantal, share a place of articulation (alveolar) and have the same manner of articulation (plosive), they differ in their voicing feature. [a] and [m] are both voiced and sonorant! [K] and [ŋ] again share a place of articulation (velar, near the back of the mouth) and they are both occlusive (they stop the passage of air through the mouth), yet they differ in their voicing, and [k] is not continuant, while [ŋ] is!
I have expertise in Ecology, Evolution, and Genetics. But my degree is in general biology So I can help with anything from a College level intro bio class to upper level environmental science and genetics courses! I also have a passion for Botany! Example Question: Why is there no risk of an RNA vaccine causing changes to a persons genome (I have been asked about this a few times with the new introduction of the pFizer and Moderna Vaccines!)
RNA is the carrier molecule that takes the instructions from your DNA (in your nucleus) to make proteins in the cytoplasm of the cell. This process is unidirectional meaning that we can encode RNA from DNA, but most organisms (including humans) can not go the other way, so there is no risk the the RNA in a vaccine would insert itself back into your DNA, we dont have the molecular machinery to make that happen! Your cells are also pretty selective about what it lets in and out of your nucleus. the pores that allow RNA to leave the nucleus of a cell and go on to make protein is unidirectional, mature and ready to go RNA can leave the Nucleus but can not enter. Finally, RNA is not immediately ready to go when it is copied from DNA, it must first be modified through processes that cut the RNA into smaller pieces and rejoin them (splicing), and attachments to each end of the RNA message molecule. These modifications tell the cell that the RNA is ready to be processed and needs to stay away from the DNA. The RNA used in the vaccines is in this final form, with molecular modifications that tell the cell that it needs to be used specifically (and only) to make the protein to trigger the immune response.
If we don't know the answer to a math question, we can often plug and chug the different answer choices and pick the one that works best? How can we waste the least amount of time doing this? Ex. David received three grades of 85, 92, and 100 on his first 3 tests. What must he get on the fourth test to get a 90 average? A. 83 B. 87 C. 90 D. 95 E. None of the above
If we are going with the plug and chug values, we don't want to try every single option because thats going to take too much time (It can always feel like we don't have enough time on the ACT). What I would do here is start with a number in the middle, and then from that we can tell if our answer choice was too big (so we dont have to try all of the options) In the question above, if we dont know how to solve with the algebra, we can just try calculating the average with each different option. Instead of starting with option one and moving down the list. Lets pick the option in the middle (B.87). Then we can calculate that average ((85 +92 +100 + 87)/4 = 91 Thats too high! So we know the answer also cant be C or D (because they would give an even bigger average), this means the answer is probably A! (If you check it A gives an average of 90!) and we only had to check 2 of the 4 answer choices, so we saved some time