Tutor profile: Holly C.
What is Social Control and theories of deviance?
Social Control = Social control is the study of the mechanisms, in the form of patterns of pressure, through which society maintains social order and cohesion (per Oxford Bibliographies). Social Control Theory states that deviance is a matter of failed social control. It is theorized if you have a weak bond with your community, society, and social group you are more likely to become deviant than those with strong group, community, and societal bonds. Differential Association and Cultural Transmission theories are similar. Differential Association states that criminal behavior is learned the same way as law abiding values and the values are learned in those we socialize with and the situations we find ourselves in. Cultural Transmission is the process of passing onto individuals/groups attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors. Social Control Theory, Differential Association, and Cultural Transmission are known as the theories of deviance in Sociology.
Subject: European History
How has the Renaissance influenced modern Western society?
The Medieval Period of Europe is generally considered to be from the 5th century - late 15th century, beginning with the 'fall' of the Western Roman Empire and ending with the Renaissance and Age of Discovery. Medieval life was defined by religion and the Catholic Church and religion always outweighed temporal (secular) concerns. Your focus was on God and the eternal. Out of the Renaissance (late 14th century-17th century) was born Humanism (Humanities) which celebrated the human condition using ancient Greek and Roman texts to change the mindset of society. During the Renaissance there came about a cultural expansion and expression of ideas. Fine art began to be appreciated and preserved. Artwork became more realistic and you began to see the beginning of actual portraiture and not just generic paintings used to represent monarchs and the aristocracy as had been previously done . There was an interest in scientific research and inventions. Leonardo DaVinci, although known today as a great Renaissance painter, actually preferred inventing machines such as a tank, parachute, diving suit, flying machine, and machine gun. Descartes, Galileo, Copernicus, and Newton made great scientific discoveries. They began to use empiricism; use of experimentation and observation. DaVinci studied anatomy by performing autopsy's, although it had to be done in secret as it was illegal at the time. The printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenberg about 1440, making books much more affordable and the spread of ideas easier. For the first time the Bible was printed in languages other than Latin allowing people to read and interpret it for themselves, instead of interpretations being solely through priests and the church. On October 31, 1517 Martin Luther nailed his Ninety Nine Theses to the door of the church thereby beginning the Protestant Reformation. Literature was published (made possible by the printing press) such as The Prince by Machiavelli and Shakespeare's plays which did not have a religious focus. Feudalism was was replaced by a capitalist market economy which allowed for a development of the 'middle class.' In the interest of discovering new trade routes, monarchies finances voyages of discovery such as Columbus who then 'discovered' the Caribbean Islands believing them to be Asia. The English would later go on to found colonies at Jamestowne, VA, Pymouth, MA, and Roanoke Island (disappeared). The Dutch would found New Amsterdam, now New York City. It would also be the beginning of the transatlantic slave trade from Africa to the 'New World' of North and South America. The Renaissance laid the foundation for The Enlightenment and is generally considered to be the transition period from the ancient world to the modern.
Subject: African History
What impact did the ancient Kushite Kingdom, also known as Nubia, and ancient Egypt have on each other?
Throughout it's history Kush and Egypt vacillated between being enemies and allies. There appears to have been a lot of intermarriage between the two peoples as demonstrated in reliefs showing Egyptian women married to Kushite/Nubian mercenaries. Nubian mercenaries were used extensively by ancient Egypt due to their ability with the bow and arrow. Most of the gold used throughout ancient Egyptian history was mined in Nubia and traded to the Egyptians as well. Senusret I of the Middle Kingdom's 12th dynasty led several expeditions into Nubia for conquest and built 13 forts. Nubian culture was then heavily influenced by the Egyptian culture as evidenced by surviving ruins of temples and many pyramids. In fact, Nubian's would build more pyramids than the Egyptians which academics have just begun to seriously excavate and study in the past 15-20 years. The Nubian elite also developed a close relationship with the Priesthood of Amun in Thebes which would benefit them later. Nubian writing was influenced by Egyptian Hieroglyphs, but currently only some words and phrases of their writing can be deciphered. It has been hypothesized that the Great Royal Wife of Amenhotep III (18th dynasty, New Kingdom, The Golden Age), Tiye, was of Nubian descent. She was the mother of the 'Heretic Pharaoh' Akhanaten (Amenhotep IV) and grandmother of Tutankhamen. During Egypt's Third Intermediate Period (1075bce-664bce) Egypt was fragmented and ruled by dynasties of Libyan descent. In 728 BCE, likely at the invitation of the priests, the ruler of Kush, Pianky, invaded Egypt to take the country from the ruling Libyan dynasty. He would succeed and be the first pharaoh of the 25th dynasty that would rule Egypt for about 100 years. They would rule in the style of the native Egyptian pharaohs, however their statuary depicted them more realistically than the ancient Egyptians did and the realistic style would continue after the fall of the dynasty. The 25th dynasty was ended by the invasions of emperors Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. They would install a puppet dynasty of native Egyptians that became the 26th dynasty and began the Late Period of ancient Egyptian history. This is just a brief overview of the subject and there are new discoveries every years as the academic community studies the ancient kingdom of Nubia/Kush (modern day northern Sudan) much more in depth. There continues to be a population of Nubians living in southern Egypt around Aswan. You can visit a Nubian Village if you like. Although Egyptian citizens, they continue to speak their own language alongside Arabic and keep their own cultural traditions alive.
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