Describe how a hydroelectric power station uses energy transformations to create electrical power from a renewable source.
Hydroelectric power stations convert the gravitational energy of stored water into electrical energy by using a turbine. Water is stored behind a dam, where it has gravitational potential energy. The water is then released to produce kinetic energy, which is transferred into the turbine, causing it to spin. The spinning turbine uses magnets to convert the kinetic energy into electrical energy. This process is renewable as it uses the water cycle to refill the dam.
The following equilibrium system is formed when potassium thiocynate solution is added to a solution of iron (III) nitrate. The iron (III) ion is an orange colour in solution, while the iron thiocynate ion is dark red. Fe 3+(aq) + SCN-(aq) ↔ FeSCN2+(aq) ΔrH is positive Describe the expected observation and use equilibrium principles to discuss the reason for this observation when the reaction mixture is cooled.
When the system is cooled the equilibrium responds to increase the temperature. It does this by favouring the reverse reaction since this reaction is exothermic. So the red colour would fade to orange.
Explain the relationships between DNA, chromosomes and genes.
DNA is the heredity material of the cell which is found in the chromosomes in the nucleus. These are found as strands each one of these strands of DNA is called a chromosome. A gene is a segment of DNA, found in a small section of the chromosome. Along the DNA, base sequences provide the code for building different proteins, which then determine particular features.