Tutor profile: David T.
Subject: Organic Chemistry
What is the difference between SN1 and SN2 substitution reactions?
An SN1 reaction is a step-wise process that has a carbocation as an intermediate. SN1 reactions will result in a racemic mixture of both R and S configurations. An SN2 reaction is a concerted process and will NOT have a carbocation as an intermediate. The SN2 reaction will not have a racemic mixture of both R and S configurations rather it will only result in a
What is the difference between a sigma bond and a pi bond? How do these terms apply to atom hybridization?
A sigma bond is often seen as a "single" bond. It is the sharing of 1 electron pair. A pi bond is seen as "two or more" bonds. Pi bonds can be illustrated by double or triple bonds. Pi bonds share at least 2 or more electron pairs. Atom hybridization happens when a pi bond is added to a sigma bond. The atom undergoes hybridization and retains aspects of both sigma and pi bonds. The hybridization is often referred to on paper as sp^1, sp^2, and sp^3
Explain the importance of phylogenetics and name the important phyla of the Kingdom Animalia
Phylogenetics help scientists visualize the "tree of life." Phylogenetics has many important variables and factors that help scientists properly place animals on the phylogenetic tree. The important phyla of the kingdom include Porifera (sponges), Cnidaria (jellyfish and anemones), Mollusca (clams and octopi), Echinodermata (sea stars), Arthropoda (insects and crustaceans), Annelida (segmented worms), Platyhelminthes (flat worms), Chordata (vertebrates and hemichordates)
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