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Tutor profile: Keegan O.

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Keegan O.
Psychology student
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Questions

Subject: Philosophy

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Question:

What is the GHP and what ethical theory is it related to?

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Keegan O.
Answer:

The GHP (greatest happiness principle) suggests the most morally sound course of action is that which produces the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people. "The greatest happiness for the greatest number" is a tenet of classic utilitarianism.

Subject: Sociology

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Question:

Name and describe one of the major criminological theories developed through sociological inquiry.

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Keegan O.
Answer:

Labeling theory: Also considered "self-fulfilling prophecy", labeling theory suggests individuals' self-concept is subject to change based on society's labeling of them. Thus, an individual labeled as a "criminal" by their society/community is more likely to engage in behavior consistent with their beliefs about what criminal behavior is as they have integrated that labeling into their self-concept.

Subject: Psychology

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Question:

Name the 3 main generations of pharmaceuticals used in the treatment of depression (antidepressants) and describe their efficacy and/or side effects. Bonus: What type of pharmaceutical is currently understood in research communities to likely be the next wave of treatment for depression.

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Keegan O.
Answer:

MAOIs (Monoamine oxidase inhibitors): Blocks the releases of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme responsible for breaking down neurotransmitters. This makes those neurotransmitters available for better mood regulation. Though these can be useful, they have the potential for severe food interactions. Thus, MAOIs are reserved for individuals when other antidepressant treatments fail. TCAs (Tricyclic antidepressants) block the absorption of serotonin, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine into nerve cells. Though effective, these medications tend to have severe side effects. For the most part, TCAs have been replaced by newer medications with fewer side effects. SSRIs (Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). SSRIs inhibit the reuptake of serotonin, leaving more available in the brain. These are currently the most common pharmaceutical treatment for depression. SSRIs tend to be effective and have fewer side effects than the aforementioned medications, but side effects are still present. It can take trying several different SSRIs in order to find one that works in treating one's depression. Bonus: Glutamate drugs like Ketamine are being looked at as a potential breakthrough treatment for depression. Ketamine is understood to trigger the production of glutamate, and as a result, create new neural pathways. Used alongside CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy) some patients report long-term relief from depressive symptoms.

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