Tutor profile: Madison C.
Example Case study: A client named Mary is a newborn. The hospital report shows that Mary was presented with hypotonia and seizures during her first few hours of life. Her seizures did not respond to pyridoxine, but stopped shortly after being given PLP. Explain what this client has and why she was unresponsive to pyridoxine. Additionally, what is the most likely course of treatment for this client?
Mary most likely has an issue with her pyridoxal phosphate pathway. Vitamin B6 must be converted to PLP by flavoprotein PNP oxidase in order to be utilized by the body as a co-enzyme. Epileptic seizures are often said to be caused by a Vitamin B6 deficiency. However, this really is caused by a deficiency in PLP since the body cannot use unconverted Vitamin B6, otherwise known as pyridoxine. Because the conversion pathway is most likely abnormal, giving Mary more pyridoxine did not solve the issue. Instead, giving her the usable, converted B6 end product (PLP) was helpful. The treatment for this is most likely a lifetime use of oral PLP treatments. Note: some universities may require the knowledge of different ways of converting Vitamin B6 to PLP. I mentioned that oxidation of PNP and PMP by flavoprotein PNP oxidase is one way (and the main way), but some courses may also want you to know that PMP can also be converted to PLP via transamination reactions.
Subject: Basic Chemistry
There is 1.95 g KCl in 321 mL of water. Assume water has a density of 1g/mL. What is the molality of the solution? Round your answer to the nearest tenth.
1. We write out the equation for molality, which is m= (moles of solute/ kg of solvent). Pay attention to the units of the equation. 2. Since the equation asks for moles of solute and kg of solvent, we must convert our solute and solvent into those respective units. Let's start with the moles of solute. We know that we have 321 mL of water as our solute and that the density is 1g/mL. We will use dimensional analysis to perform: (321 mL) (1 g/ 1mL) which gives us 321 g. 3. Now, we can convert 321 g to moles. First, we know the chemical formula of water is H2O. We will use the periodic table (which gives us the atomic mass of each molecule) and find that the mass of 2 hydrogens + 1 oxygen is 18.015 g/mol. Now, we can use dimensional analysis to perform: (321 g)(1 mol/ 18.015g)= 17.818 moles of water. 4. Next, we will convert 1.95 g of solvent into kg. Again, let us perform dimension analysis: (1.95 g)(1 kg/1000 g)= 0.0195 kg. Now that everything is in the correct units, let's plug it all into the molality equation. m= (moles of solute/ kg of solvent) m= (17.818 moles of water)/ 0.0195 kg KCl m=913.7 m This entire process is a lot easier on paper and pencil (instead of it being typed out) so definitely ask me for more help if you are confused! Additionally, when it comes to conversions and basic chemistry (especially high school chemistry, AP chemistry or college level introductory chemistry), dimensional analysis is a must! If you are not comfortable with dimensional analysis, that is the very first skill you should seek help in and be sure to master.
A number that is increased by 9, then multiplied by 4 results in 48. What is the number?
First, we want to write this problem out numerically so that it makes more sense. Anytime we see an unknown number, our first strategy is to called it "x". Therefore, our numerical equation will be (x+9) (4)= 48. We use parenthesis to show that we first perform the operation (x+9), then we multiply by 4. This is because of the PEMDAS rule. Now that we have our numerical equation of (x+9) (4)= 48, we can begin solving for x, which is our unknown number. Our goal here is to isolate x, which means to have x on one side of the = sign and our number on the other. I will have the steps laid out below: (x+9) (4)= 48 [(x+9) (4)]/4= 48/4 first, we divide both sides by 4 (x+9)=12 this is what we get after dividing both sides by 4 (x+9)-9=12-9 next, we subtract both sides by 9 x=3 this means our unknown number is 3!
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