Explain the main functional difference between an HMO and a PPO to a consumer trying to choose a health insurance plan.
Health managed organizations are different from Preferred provider organizations in that HMOs usually require people to see physicians within their network and patients must receive referrals to specialists from their primary care providers. PPOs allow free to people to see any doctor they choose, primary or specialty physicians, in and out of network, provided that particular practitioner accepts their insurance.
Explain how blood pumps through the heart.
Blood returns from circulation and enters the right atrium of the heart via the pulmonary arteries. The blood then passes through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and leaves the heart through the pulmonary (pulmonic) valve and enters the vascular circulation of the lungs, where it is reoxygenated. Blood returns to the heart, specifically to the left atrium via the pulmonary veins, and then passes through the mitral valve into the left ventricle. Blood is then pumped out into circulation via the aortic valve.
How are nitrogenous bases paired with the DNA vs the RNA molecules?
Two DNA chains made up nitrogenous bases, Adenine, Thymine. Guanine and Cytosine are paired. Purines (Guanine and Adenine) are paired with pyrimidines (Thymine and Cytosine) in DNA, which is a double-stranded molecule. The general rule is Guanine to Cytosine, and Adenine to Thymine (G-C and A-T). Bases are not actually paired in RNA, as these are single-stranded molecules (one chain of nitrogenous bases).