What are measures a nurse may institute to prevent deep vein thrombosis in a non-ambulatory patient?
A non-ambulatory patient who is at risk for deep vein thrombosis would require the following: 1) Appropriate fluid consumption (unless patient is fluid restriction for cardiac issues) 2) Administration of anticoagulant (as ordered by provider). This may include heparin, Lovenox, warfarin (Coumadin) and/or other prescribed anticoagulants. If the patient is receiving anticoagulants then the nurse must also monitor PT or PTT/INR. 3) Measurement of calf girth and ultrasound of swollen calf (if swelling is evident) 4) Compression stalkings 5) Passive range of motion exercises
Describe how DNA becomes a protein.
DNA is the basic unit of our genetics. This code serves as the instructions for the creation of protein. In order for DNA to be converted into protein requires two steps. The first, is called transcription. In this process, DNA is transcribed (converted) into RNA. In order to do this, the DNA must be pulled apart. A protein must then attach to each strand of the DNA and covert copy the DNA into a template strand. The template will be composed of the complementary base pairs of the DNA with the exception that Thiamine is substituted for Uracil. With a new, single stranded RNA created, this molecule is transported out of the nucleus through the nuclear pore and into the endoplasmic reticulum. Here it is modified and eventually transported out of the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm, RNA is translated into protein. In order for this to occur, the RNA must be strung through a structure called a ribosome (similar to a string being pulled through a hotdog bun). When the RNA is strung through the ribosome they will encounter tRNA molecules. tRNA molecules are floating in the cytoplasm. The tRNA molecule has a structure similar to a three leaf clover. On one end the tRNA molecule is attached to an amino acid (the building block of proteins). The other end of the tRNA molecule is called the anticodon. This anticodon consists of three nucleic acid residues that will match up with three residues on the RNA being strung through the ribosome (this is called the codon). Therefore, when the RNA is strung through the ribosome, tRNA will come and land on the RNA and match their anticodon with the RNA's codon. As the tRNA do this, they will leave behind their amino acids. The amino acids will link together forming a protein.
Explain the structure of a cortical neuron.
The cortical neuron has a cell body. The cell body contains the nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum and all other organelles found in a cell. The cortical neuron also has an axon that is responsible for propagating action potentials. Finally, the cortical neuron has many dendrites. These are attached to the cell body of the neuron (opposite that of the axon) and are responsible for receiving chemical signals from neighboring axons.