Glycolysis has many steps, which enzymes are involved in energy investment steps and which are involved in energy-producing steps?
2 enzymes are involved in energy investment. (1 atp each) -glucokinase/hexokinase(location specific enzymes) -Phosphofructokinase 1 2 enzymes are involved in energy production via substrate-level phosphorylation, however, each of these happens twice because of the 1 6-carbon to 2 3-carbon step. (2 atp each) -phosphoglycerate kinase -pyruvate kinase *Special Note- 2 NADH are produced by Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase and each of these can be sent to the kerbs cycle to make 3 ATP(6 total)
What is the Central Dogma, what are some ways this is modified by a retrovirus?
The central dogma states that DNA->mRNA-> Protein. Retrovirus is special because it's genetic code is in the mRNA form, it can then use a special enzyme, reverse transcriptase, to create DNA for progeny production.
Where would you find the intercostal artery vein and nerve and what is their order? Further, what would we do to avoid these delicate structures during a potential procedure?
The order of the intercostal structures can be remembered by the acronym VAN for Vein, Artery, and Nerve, all of which are located on the inferior aspect of the rib. To avoid these structures one would simply go to the superior aspect of the next consecutive rib.