Tutor profile: Elena T.
How do you structure an analytical essay?
The best way to organize an analytical essay, especially if you are only beginning to interact with the form, is to follow a clear format. Analytical essays rely on three main components; a strong thesis statement, evidence that backs your claim, and your own original analysis of that evidence. A TS, CD, CM, CM outline will ensure that your analytical essay includes each of the three components. As a writer becomes more comfortable with the form, they can begin to alter it.
How does Max Weber describe the social foundations of modern, rational capitalism? What role does culture (and religion) play in Weber’s account?
Modern rational capitalism combines the behavior of Weber’s ‘rationality’ (logical organization and intentional behavior to achieve a specific goal) and ‘modern capitalism’, where the goal is profit-maximization and labor is formally free. The social foundations of this system include systematic and unstopping pursuit of profit, achieved through exchange of goods and services, the separation of business from the household, formally free labor, as mentioned above, and rationality, through exact calculation of profit and a formal legal system. Instrumentally rational social action is key within this type of system. This type of social action occurs when being able to predict others behavior becomes the means to achieve a specific goal. Rationalized social structures are very important for this to work effectively, as they make behavior more stable, and thus predictable. Weber saw culture as an important motivator of behavior, and developed the theory of “Economic Ethic”. This theory posits that action occurs due to impulses, which are connected to interests. Interests are either spiritual, in the form of “salvation-goods” or material. Societies have “culture-carriers” who create meaning to the interests of a society. “Salvation-goods” motivate action, promising ‘this-worldly’ benefits, such as health or wealth, or ‘extra-worldly’ benefits, like Heaven. They are promised by religions. Weber connects economic ethic and the system of modern, rationalized capitalism with his concept of Protestant Ascetism. Protestants have a specific goal, redemption, which must be achieved through “ethically rationalizing” the world. The progress towards this goal is seen through “this-worldly” signs, such as economic success. Thus, there is a large motivation to contribute to the modern, rational capitalist system.
What is stratification economics? Why is it beneficial to use?
Stratification economics attempts to understand the ways in which structural factors, purposeful hierarchies and processes create income and wealth inequality between distinct groups. This way of understanding the world makes four assumptions. First, wealth passed between generations is an incredibly important factor in the economic wellbeing of groups. Second, certain racial groups gain material benefits from racial privilege. Third, discriminatory practices exist to protect racial privilege, and the material benefits gained from that privilege. Relevantly, these discriminatory practices will not disappear naturally, and must be targeted by policies. Finally, dysfunctional behavior by individuals does not signify a collective trait of groups.
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