You're in the clinic and a patient presents with hip pain. They mention they have pain with exercising. Interestingly, they have pain with specific movements (rotation, abduction, and flexion) and are pain free in others. When asked if they had hip issues in the past, they mention they had a history of hip pain during exercise. Special tests reveal a positive (+) FADIR test. What hip injury does this patient present with?
The hip injury is FAI (Femoral Acetabular Impingement.) This pathology arises when the femoral head does not fit perfectly in the acetabulum due to abnormal bone formation on either the head or neck of the femur or rim of the acetabulum.
Imagine you're in a lab and you're in front of a computer reading DNA sequences. If a particular sequence of DNA read: C T C A T A, what would the corresponding mRNA and tRNA sequences be?
The DNA sequence read: C T C A T A. The goal is to "translate" this set of letters into mRNA. We know A goes with T and C goes with G for 2 strands of DNA. There is an exception, however. If we have an A nucleotide in a DNA strand, and we wanted its RNA counterpart, we would put a U instead of a T. Everything else is the same. Therefore, for a DNA strand reading: C T C A T A, the mRNA strand would read: G A G U A U. To "translate" mRNA to tRNA, simply repeat the same protocol. Therefore, an mRNA strand reading G A G U A U would read: C U C A U A.
On the posterior aspect of the hip, what are the 5 (five) deep external rotator muscles? Please list from superior to inferior.
The external rotators, or lateral rotators, are deep (below) the gluteus maximus muscle and as their name implies, they externally rotate the femur when 1 or more of them contract. From superior to inferior, the external rotators are the: Piriformis, Gemellus Superior, Obturator Externus, Gemellus Inferior, and Quadratus Femoris.