What is the Octet rule? Which elements of the periodic table follow this rule? What does the Octet rule have to do with stability? Does this rule work for all elements?
The Octet rule states that elements with 8 electrons in the valence shell are unreactive and do not form bonds. This means that atoms tend to either gain, lose, or share electrons until they're surrounded by 8 valence electrons (i.e. which gives you 4 electron pairs). In regards to the periodic table, you'll find that Noble gases have a full octet which explains their reactivity. Elements that follow the Octet rule are stable, as they have filled their s and p sublevels. The Octet rule has many exceptions; therefore, one must be careful of outer shell electrons.
Explain the process of photosynthesis and identify organisms that can carry out photosynthesis and those that cannot? What is the generalization of reactants and products for the photosynthesis process?
In general, photosynthesis can be described as a series of chemical reactions that are carried out by plants, algae, cyanobacteria, and other specific organisms. The process involves the organism obtaining energy from the sun to produce glucose (e.g., sugars) and oxygen (e.g., released). Organisms that are able to photosynthesize contain small organelles called chloroplasts, which allows photosynthesis to occur. In these chloroplast organelles, there is chlorophyll, a green substance found which is responsible for collecting energy from the sun, which also makes plant appear green. The general photosynthesis process is generalized as the following: reactants include sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to create products, which include glucose and oxygen.
Numerical Properties: Associative, Commutative, and Distributive Properties. Describe these properties; provide the general properties; and identify strategies to remember these properties.
In regards to the distributive property, the general property is written as A(B+C)=AB+AC. A good way to think of this property is by thinking that multiplication distributes over addition. If a problem states to use the distributive property, they're most likely asking for you to factor something out such as multiplying via parentheses. Associative property translates to "group." This property is known as a+(b+c)=(a+b)+c. For multiplication, the rule is known as a(bc)=(ab)c. Example 2+(5+4)= (2+5)+4. A good way to remember this property is by thinking that associative= regrouping. The commutative property is known as the "move around" property. The general property is written as a+b=b+a and ab=ba. When asked to use the commutative property, remember that you're allowed to move numbers and/or variables around; however, both sides of the equal side must be equal.