What is the difference between an electrophile and a nucleophile?
Nucleophiles and electrophiles are two different types of reactants in organic reactions. A nucleophile is a reactant that is known to be "nucleus-seeking," that is, these reactants tend to be attracted towards atoms that are "electron-poor." Structurally, nucleophiles are characterized to have high electron density, such as reactants bearing a full or a partial negative charge. An electrophile, on the other hand, is a reactant that is known to be "electron-seeking," that is, these reactants tend to be attracted towards atoms that are "electron-rich." Structurally, electrophiles are characterized to have low electron density, such as reactants bearing a full or a partial positive charge.
What is a redox reaction?
Redox, or reduction-oxidation, reactions are chemical reactions that involve electron transfer. These reactions involve two half processes: reduction and oxidation. In oxidation, the reactant undergoes losing of electron or electrons. The reactant that losses the electron is called the reducing agent. In reduction, on the contrary, the reactant undergoes gaining of electron or electrons. The reactant that gains the electron is called the oxidizing agent. Note that these two reactions always occur in pairs; a reduction process always occur with an oxidation process.
What are atoms made up of?
The atom is the building block of matter. It is composed of three basic components or sub-atomic particles: the electron, the proton and the neutron. Electrons are the negatively charged component of the atom. They are found on different orbitals of the atom. The proton is the positively charged component of the atom, while the neutron is the uncharged component of the atom. Both the protons and neutrons occupy the nucleus of the atom which is found at the center.