Tutor profile: Vinila B.
What is the difference between classical and operant conditioning?
Classical conditioning was first studied by Ivan Pavlov. Pavlov investigated the relationship between an involuntary behavior and a consequence. One of Pavlov’s most famous studies was establishing a classically conditioned relationship between the sound of a bell and salivation in dogs. By associating the bell with anticipation for a meal, the dogs would salivate in excitation for their upcoming meal. This conditioning was based on a passive, involuntary response to the stimulus. On the other hand, operant conditioning was established by B. F. Skinner. Skinner studied the association between voluntary behavior to a consequence. One of Skinner’s most famous studies was done on rats by seeing the rat’s behavior change based on the rewards or punishments given after their response to a stimulus. Skinner found that behavioral patterns take place after reinforcing or punishing a specific behavioral response to a stimulus. This conditioning was based on an active, voluntary response to a stimulus. A great way to learn and differentiate these two types of conditioning is to think about involuntary and voluntary responses you have on a daily basis. Whether it is from the sound of a text message alert, smell of coffee, or phobias, personal examples of operant and classical conditioning are all around you!
What happens when a protein denatures?
Proteins denature because the hydrogen bonds are disrupted. The hydrogen bonds in a protein can be denatured after exposure to factors like urea, high temperatures, and pH imbalances. Hydrogen bonds are vital for protein structures beyond the primary degree of protein folding. Therefore, during protein denaturation the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary protein structures unravel due to a lack of hydrogen bonds. The only structure that is left is the primary protein structure which is a chain of amino acids. Protein denaturation can drastically alter the function and environment of the protein which can ultimately lead to a loss of biological activity.
What is the blood supply to the appendix?
The appendix is a part of the colon or large intestine. The appendix is supplied by branches of the Superior Mesenteric Artery, aka SMA. The SMA is a branch from the abdominal aorta. The SMA makes many branches, including the ileocolic artery. The ileocolic artery creates the posterior cecal artery that forms a terminal branch known as the appendicular artery. This appendicular artery which originates from the SMA and ileocolic artery supplies blood and nutrients to the appendix. Medical relevance of the appendix: A common emergency medical procedure is performed when Appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix) occurs which usually results in an appendectomy (removal of the appendix). During an appendectomy the appendicular artery is ligated.
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