You would like to test participants' happiness. What are two ways you could operationalize "happiness?"
"Happiness" needs to be operationalized because there is not just one way to define to test it. One way to operationalize happiness is to define it as "overall well-being," in which there are many Likert scales to test for overall well-being. Another way would be to define it in physiological terms. In this instance, the researcher could measure the participant's dopamine levels before and after treatment to see any potential differences.
"Rape culture" can be defined as the way society excuses and normalizes male sexual violence. In what ways can rape culture be seen in the legal system?
Rape culture excuses and normalizes male sexual violence, placing the blame on the victim (usually a female). There are many ways in which rape culture is pervasive in the legal system. Most recently in the news, David Becker, of Massachusetts, was accused of sexually assaulting two female classmates. Becker was served with two years of probation and will not have to register as a sex offender because he was an athlete and they were looking out for his collegiate future. In this case, many people (news outlets included) were quick to defend the accused rapist and because of this, he was given a very light sentence for the crime he was accused of. Rape culture excuses and normalizes his accused behavior, and places an emphasis more on the accused rapist's future if he were convicted, instead of the survivor's future. Another main way that rape culture is prevalent in the legal system is that most accused rapists are not actually found to be guilty, even if there was sufficient evidence, even video tape evidence, in some cases.
Animals adapt to their environments over time. What are two adaptations a land turtle has compared to a sea turtle?
Firstly, a land turtle has high, dome-shaped shells, whereas a sea turtle has a more streamline-shaped shell in order to more easily move through the water to create less resistance. Secondly, a land turtle has thicker, heaver, and more claw-like feet than a sea turtle. Sea turtles have adapted to have more flipper-like "fins" as their feet to more easily travel through the water.