Using P = 6(x - 4) change the subject of the formula to x.
P/6 = x-4 (P/6)+4 = x x = 4+ (P/6)
Explain what a state of equilibrium is and factors that could effect it?
The definition of equilibrium is the forward reaction equals the rate of the backward reaction in a closed system. Factors that could disrupt this equilibrium include: Concentration, Temperature and Pressure. Reactants <-----> Products Concentration - as the concentration of the products increases, this causes the equilirbium to favour the reactants and shift to the left in order to produce more reactants to try and obtain balance. Temperature - An increase in temperature favours the endothermic reaction (a reaction in which energy is taken in from the surroundings) Pressure - An increase in pressure would favour the side with lower gas volume (lower number of moles)
Describe the structure of the plasma cell membrane and list different types of embedded proteins you would expect to find here?
The cell membrane is composed of a lipid bi-layer made up of lipoproteins. These lipids have a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail - arranged with the head facing the extraceullar fluid and the intracellular cytoplasm and the hydrophobic tails facing each other in the lipid bilayer. Cholesterol can also be found between the lipid heads to increase fluidity of the membrane. Throughout the membrane can be found a variety of different proteins with different functions. Simplistically, intrinsic, extrinsic and transmembrane proteins can be found embedded in the membrane. This collection of proteins and the fluidity of the membrane due to the combined action of lipids and cholesterol explains why the membrane is described as the "fluid mosaic model" - it has an aspect of fluidity as well as a mosaic of different proteins. Further on the proteins, these proteins can be receptors to bind to ligands to bring about an intracellular response; transporters for aiding the passage of large molecules or ions across the membrane; kinases for signal transduction; voltage or ligand-gated channels; as well as many others.