What is the difference between a weak acid and a strong acid?
Acid strengths are characterized by how readily they give a proton. Strong acids, like HCl, break entirely apart into H+ and Cl-. Weak acids like acetic acid, do not break fully apart into H+ and CH3COO-. The value of Ka helps us determine how strong or weak an acid is. If the value for Ka is large, the acid is strong; if the value for Ka is small, the acid is weak. You can determine the pH of weak acids and strong acids by performing additional calculations.
How do I name compounds?
Here is a step by step on how to name compounds. First thing you need to figure out: Is the compound Ionic or covalent? ionic compounds are made up of metals and nonmetals (nonmetals make up the right side of the periodic table, metals make up the majority of the table on the left side/below the stair steps) Covalent compounds are made up of two nonmetals. If the compound is ionic you use the following rules to name it: Rule #1 Cation name + anion name Rule #2 monoatomic cation? Use element name Rule #3 Monoatomic anion? Use root of element -----+ ide Rule #4 To distinguish between multiple oxidation numbers, use Roman numeral charge Rule #5 Polyatomic ions? Use ion name If the compound is covalent you use the following rules to name it Rule #1 First element in the formula is always named first Rule #2 Second element is the root of the element _____+ ide Rule #3 Prefixes are used to indicate the number of atoms of each element example #1 NaCl Na = metal; Cl = nonmetal so the compound is ionic the name for Na is sodium, the name for Cl is chlorine. Chlorine is the anion so instead of saying chlor-ine you say chlor-ide this names the name of NaCl sodium chloride example #2 CO C = nonmetal O = nonmetal so the compound is covalent The first element is carbon, the second element is oxygen. Because oxygen is second you'll cut out the ending ox-ygen to make it ox-ide. carbon _____oxide In covalent compounds we include the number of atoms in the compound. There is only one carbon and one oxygen so the name becomes carbon monoxide. (You always assume the first one is one, unless another prefix like di- or tri- or tetra- is used)
If DNA is kept inside the nucleus, and proteins are transcribed outside the nucleus, how are proteins created?
DNA is information database for all parts of an organism, and that information needs to be protected. Mutations, even if they are small can have lethal effects on an organism. Inside the nucleus the DNA is protected. When it is time to make a protein, a section of DNA is replicated and transcribed into mRNA. The mRNA can then leave the nucleus and travel into the cytoplasm where it can meet up with ribosomes and begin translation. This process is of vital importance! If DNA could travel outside the cell, and be transcribed then our cells would replicate all sorts foreign DNA --> organisms already have a hard enough time fighting off bacterial and viral DNA.