Where should the main argument, or thesis, be in the introductory paragraph of a persuasive essay and why?
The main argument, or thesis, should be at the end of the introductory paragraph because the context for the essay needs to be provided first, which contextualizes the main argument of the essay. This main argument should be stated right before the evidence and extended background for it is given in the body paragraphs, so that readers know the position the author is taking before they read about the evidence for that argument and can reflect critically on the author's position as they read the essay.
What is Jespersen's Cycle and how has French changed over time in accordance with the cycle?
Jespersen's Cycle is a set of processes involving change over time to negation in a language, which follow a specific order and has, in some languages, repeated itself, hence why it is called a cycle. There are four stages, wherein: (1) a word is the head of the NegP and indicates negation. (2) That head of NegP eventually is no longer able to indicate negation on its own and begins to require an AdvP reinforcer as the specifier of NegP in order to continue expressing negation in the sentence. (3) The head of the NegP eventually becomes silent, so that only the reinforcer is indicating negation, but the sentence structure still indicates that this reinforcer of negation is still part of an AdvP that is in the specifier of the NegP. (4) That reinforcer is eventually reanalyzed as the head of NegP and the cycle begins again. French sentence order originally had negation preceding the verb ("Je ne parle italien", where "ne" was the head of NegP). "Ne" began to require a reinforcer, which was "pas" ("Je ne parle pas italien"). Colloquial modern French now has dropped "ne," but "pas" is still the head of the AdvP, as it follows the verb in the sentence "Je parle pas italien." However, French is not yet in the fourth stage, where "pas" would be reanalyzed as the head of NegP, leading to the negative marker preceding the verb.
What are some of the evolutionary downfalls of sexual and asexual reproduction and why is sexual reproduction the prevailing method for most species?
The evolutionary downfalls of sexual reproduction include the twofold cost of males, who do not contribute to the growth the population growth of a species except through the females of the species, and issues of resource partitioning in the creation of gametes. However, while asexual reproduction is outwardly less costly than sex, there are other problems associated with it. These include the potential for accumulation of deleterious mutations and the problems associated with random detrimental mutations in offspring, which are not prevented. The Founder Effect could become a problem for asexual species, as homozygosity in asexual populations due to being clones could potentially lead to extinction by natural selection, since if a trait that is shared by the entire population (due to a lack of genetic diversity) is no longer advantageous due to environmental change, that trait would be selected against and possibly prevent the species from continuing. Sexual reproduction remains the prevailing method of reproduction for most species because asexual reproduction is not advantageous, or even possible, for all species and it introduces genetic diversity into the population that is not possible in most asexual populations.