Your friend Maria is at work when she realizes there is a loose thread hanging off her shirt. She cannot find a scissors anywhere. Her coworker Isabel then suggests she use a nail-clipper from her purse. Maria is skeptical about this weird use of a nail clipper but soon finds out that it works just as well. What cognitive bias has Maria's coworker helped her to overcome?
Maria has overcame functional fixedness. This is a concept in Gestalt psychology in which a person's cognitive bias causes one not to realize that an object can be used for something other than its intended purpose.
What is the probability of selecting a female participant from a sample population containing 25 females and 35 males?
The probability is a proportion of the total female participants divided by the total number of participants. 25/ (25 + 35) = 0.4167. Or 41.67%
A student scores a grade of 87% on a test given to a class of 28 students. He does better than 50 percent of his classmates. How many of his classmates earned a grade below an 87?
First, we must state what we know and determine which information is relevant. We know that the student has a grade of 87%. He has done better than all his classmates who have scored a grade of 86% and lower. It is also given that the number of students who scored below him is equal to 50%, or half, of his total class. With simple algebra, we can now calculate what is half of 28. This can be done in a number of fun ways: 1/2 multiplied by 28/1 = 28/2 = 14. OR 50/100 multiplied by 28/1 = 1400/100 = 14. OR 0.50 multiplied by 28 = 14. OR (Using proportion and solving for X) 50/100 = X/28 (crossmultiply) X=14.