Lindsay works for $15/hour regularly. She served as a substitute at a higher rate $18/hour. During the course of the week she worked 37.8 hours at her regular rate. She went into overtime (more than 40 hours) as a substitute and worked a total of 54.5 hours for the week. Overtime is paid at time and one half. What was Lindsay's gross pay for this week? Bonus: Lindsay has 12% withheld from her check pre-tax to contribute to her 401K. 25% in taxes is then taken from her check. What is the net amount of Lindsay's payment for the week?
54.5 total hours - 37.8 hour at reg rate = 16.7 hours at sub rate 54.5 total hours - 40 hours reg time = 14.5 hours at overtime 16.7 hours- 14.5 hours at overtime = 2.2 hours at reg sub rate 37.8 hours ($15/hr) + 2.2 hours ($18/hr) + 14.5 hours ($18/hr) (1.5) = gross pay $567.00 + $39.60 + $391.50 = $998.10 gross pay = $998.10 Bonus: $998.10 - $998.10 (0.12) = $878.33 $878.33 - $878.33 (0.25) = $658.75 net pay = $658.75
How did German lieder composers integrate text and music? Please give an example.
“Du liebst mich nicht” was written in July 1822 and is the first piece in Vier Lieder, Opus 59. The text is one of only two that Schubert set by the German poet and dramatist August von Platen-Hallermünde. The poetry of Platen was brought to Schubert’s attention by their mutual friend, Franz von Bruchmann, who befriended Platen at the University of Erlangen. Schubert depicts the dejection and confusion of this text through very abrupt modulations and minor modes. The introduction appears to be a relatively simple prolongation of a-minor tonic; however, in the third measure an unexpected F major-9 chord sounds. The use of this chord was very innovative and unusual in the early 1800s. The voice enters and the music returns to an a-minor harmonic progression for several bars. As the text describes the character entreating and pleading, F-major is tonicized once more; however, during this section there is a rather abrupt transition into a tonicization of D-major (with a lowered six scale degree) and an even more abrupt transition into A-flat major. This is a captivating depiction of the protagonist’s confusion and of the mental shift he undergoes as he realizes that his love is not returned. The next section continues to present interesting harmonies. The first couple of bars move around a B-major-7 chord, which resolves through D-major-7 to a new tonic: G-major. The progression repeats, but this time, it resolves to G-flat major. The protagonist’s further dejection is depicted in this unusual resolution. The next section begins with a prolonged fully diminished e-7 chord, which again resolves unusually through E-major-7 to a-minor. The following phrase shifts between G-major and fully diminished b-7 and ultimately resolves through b-flat-minor, D-flat-major, and F-major to a-minor, and then A-major upon the repeat. These extremely chromatic and jarring harmonies represent the protagonist’s world crumbling around him. This progression occurs underneath text, which depicts the unimportance of everything without love—even the sun and the flowers, if his love remains unrequited. Interestingly, this text is repeated in the next section over A-major. The harmonies remain unconventional, but nothing quite as jarring occurs again. After the vocal line ends, the accompaniment resolves back to the original a-minor. It repeats the introduction, but this time the surprisingly uplifting f-major is notably absent; only the bleak a-minor remains.
What are some common causes of damage to the anatomy of the phonatory mechanism, and can damage be prevented?
Proper phonation requires a delicate balance of complex muscular tensions and efficient airflow. Such healthy phonation can be interrupted by a multitude of various unnatural causes. Medical error or complication can cause dysfunction of the members of the phonatory mechanism that is irreparable. Invasive surgeries and procedures directly involving the throat, such as thyroid surgery and tracheal intubation, are most commonly responsible for these damages. Though these errors are not necessarily due to negligence, they still often result in significant and career-ending damage for professional voice users. Certain lifestyle choices can also interrupt effective phonation. Smoking of any type is the most well known irritant of the phonatory mechanism. Less obvious potentially damaging habits include any form of vocal abuse, such as constant and habitual throat clearing, unnecessary coughing, and excessively loud phonation. These lifestyle choice related damages are completely preventable by the sufferer of phonatory inefficiency. Whatever the cause, awareness, of the sufferer and/or the medical professionals involved, can help prevent permanent damage.