What is the masdar of "دخل"?
What amendments were passed following the American Civil War and what is a rough summary of each? Additionally, explain the extent of their enforcement throughout history.
The 13th, 14th, and 15th amendment were passed following the civil war. Below are their implications: 13th: banned slavery 14th: defined a citizen as anyone born or naturalized in the US 15th: banned governments from denying citizens the right to vote based on race, color, or previous servitude. Slavery may have been proclaimed illegal, however, African Americans continued to be discriminated against and a system of sharecropping emerged after slavery was banned. Sharecropping was essentially a newly instituted form of slavery. That was among the different methods used to subjugate African Americans. They were denying voting via poll taxes and other laws, and they were denied housing. Segregation also was implemented throw Jim Crow laws. These methods were loopholes within these amendments that were later solved via other laws including the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. However, to this day, African Americans continue to be discriminated against.
What is a possible non-cultural explanation for the differences in regime types in Western Europe and the Middle East?
Democracy developed in Western Europe due to the system of taxation in place. The governments needed money so they taxed the people, however, the common American saying "no taxation without representation" applies here in that the government needed the consent of the people to tax. So a system of democracy was developed. However, the Middle East generates revenue not from tax, but from natural resources such as oil. So there was no need for Middle Eastern governments to tax the people, therefore, they owed their citizens essentially nothing because they do not take from them.