Tutor profile: Katherine F.
Subject: Environmental Science
The bobolink is a small blackbird that nests in fields of tall grass. It breeds in the summer across much of southern Canada and the northern United States. It migrates long distances, wintering in southern South America. The numbers of these birds are declining due to disruption of their habitats. In order to save these birds from extinction, a possible solution to this issue includes A. Prevent the birds from migrating to South America. B. Encourage farmers to let their hay fields undergo succession. C. Work to protect bobolink habitats in South and North America. D. Capture all the bobolinks and keep them safe in local zoos.
C. work to protect bobolink habitats in South and North America
Most deaths that are a result of breast cancer occur because the cancer cells metastasize (spread) from the breast to other organs. As they metastasize, cancer cells travel through the bloodstream. MicroRNA molecules are involved in both the movement and control of metastasized cells. One microRNA, known as miR-7, shuts down a protein that helps cancer cells travel through the blood. Understanding how miR-7 interacts with cancer cells may lead to new treatments for certain types of cancer. Since certain levels of miR-7 expression can also stimulate the development of cancer cells, the use of miR-7 to treat cancer will have to be studied in more detail. Researchers are hoping that eventually levels of miR-7 will be used to diagnose, treat, and prevent the spread of cancer in an individual. 1. State one negative effect of using miR-7 as the only treatment for breast cancer. 2. State one way cancer cells are different from normal body cells.
1. One negative effect of using miR-7 as the only treatment for breast cancer is that while it may prevent the spread of breast cancer cells throughout the body, its increased levels can possibly lead to the development of cancer cells in other areas of the body which could be just as harmful. 2. Cancer cells are different from normal body cells as in they grow uncontrollably due to the fact that cancer cell cycles go unregulated. In a normal cell cycle there are various checkpoints between phases regulate cell growth and monitor mutations in a cell. If the cell requirement is not met at the checkpoint the cell may need to wait or is destroyed (apoptosis). In cancer cells these checkpoints are ignored which not only cause uncontrollable growth but if a harmful mutation occurs the cell would surpass the checkpoint and continue to replicate with that mutation. This overgrowth of mutated cells will overtake an area of healthy cells removing their nutrients and resources resulting in the growth of a tumor. Cancer cells do not participate in cell communication the way normal body cells do. Cancer cells ignore the signal from neighboring normal cells to stop growing. Normal cells also stay in their respective locations throughout the body cancer cells can metastasize and spread)
Judy is 16 years old and collapses on the gym floor with severe pain in her chest wall every time she takes a deep breath. She is rushed by ambulance to the emergency room. Judy is diagnosed with pleurisy and is given an anti-inflammatory drug through the intravenous route. Explain why an anti-inflammatory drug would be prescribed for someone with pleurisy.
The pleural space contains a small amount of fluid that acts as a lubricant, allowing the pleurae to slide smoothly over each other as the lungs expand and contract. Pleurisy is an inflammation of the pleura around the lungs. When inflammation occurs in the pleural space, the pleurae do not slide smoothly and this causes severe pain that is more directly transmitted by the parietal than the visceral pleura.
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